Landscape Ecology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 35–49 | Cite as

Post-storm surveys reveal large-scale spatial patterns and influences of site factors, forest structure and diversity in endemic bark-beetle populations

  • M. Gilbert
  • L.-M. Nageleisen
  • A. Franklin
  • J.-C. Gregoire
Research article


The storm that struck France on december 26th and 28th 1999 felled 140 million m3 of timber and had a high economic, social and landscape impact. This event offered the opportunity to study large-scale patterns in populations of forest insect pests that would benefit from the abundant breeding material. A large-scale survey was carried out in France in 2000 to sample the most frequently observed species developing on spruce (Ips typographus, Pityogene schalcographus) and pine (Tomicus piniperda, Ips sexdentatus) in 898 locations distributed throughout wind-damaged areas. The local abundance of each species scored on a 0 to 5 scale was analysed using geostatistical estimators to explore the extent and intensity of spatial autocorrelation, and was related to site, stand, and neighbourhood landscape metrics of the forest cover (in particular the interconnection with broadleaf forest patches) found within dispersal distance. All species but I. sexdentatus, which was much less abundant, displayed large-scale spatial dependence and regional variations in abundance. Lower infestation levels per tree (windfalls and standing trees) were observed in stands with a high proportion of wind-damaged trees, which was interpreted as the result of beetles distributing themselves among the available breeding material. More infestations were observed in wind-broken trees as compared to wind-felled trees. More importantly, populations showed significant relationships with the structure of coniferous stands (in particular with the number of coniferous patches). T. piniperda population levels were negatively correlated to the amount of coniferous edge shared with broadleaf forest patches, possibly because of the disruptive effect of non-host volatiles on host-finding processes at the landscape-scale. The differences observed between species regarding patterns and relationships to site, stand, and forest cover characteristics are discussed in relation to the ecological characteristics of each species.


Bark-beetle France Geostatistics Ips sexdentatus Ips typographus Metapopulation Non-host volatile Pityogene schalcographus Tomicus piniperda 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abgrall J., F., Schvester, D. 1987Observations sur le piegeage d‘Ips typographus après chablisRevue Forestière Française34 (4)359377Google Scholar
  2. Amezaga, I., Rodriguez M., A. 1998Resource partitioning of four sympatric bark beetles depending on swarming dates and tree speciesForest Ecology and Management109127135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bebi, P., Kulakowski, D., Veblen, T.T. 2003Interactions between fire and spruce beetles in a subalpine rocky mountain forest landscapeEcology 84362371Google Scholar
  4. Berryman, A.A. 1986Assessing the risk of insect outbreaks.Berrymann, A.A. eds. Forest insects Principles and pratice of population managementPlenum PressNew York, USA125144Google Scholar
  5. Byers, J.A., Zhang, Q.H., Schlyter, F., Birgersson, G. 1998Volatiles from nonhost birch trees inhibit pheromone response in spruce bark beetlesNaturwissenschaften85557561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CEC1994CORINE Land Cover technical guideEuropean CommissionLuxemburg163 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Coulson, R.N. 1979Population dynamics of bark-beetlesAnnual Reviews of Entomology24417447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coulson, R.N., McFadden, B.A., Pulley, P.E., Lovelady, C.N., Fitzgerald, J.W., Jack, S.B. 1999Heterogeneity of forest landscapes and the distribution and abundance of the southern pine beetleForest Ecology and Management114471485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dutilleul, P. 1993Modifying the t test for assessing the correlation between two spatial processesBiometrics49305314Google Scholar
  10. Dutilleul, P., Nef, L., Frigon, D. 2000Assessment of site characteristics as predictors of the vulnerability of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stands to attack by Ips typographus L-(Col., Scolytidae)Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie12415Google Scholar
  11. Elkie, P., Rempel, R., Carr, A. 1999Patch Analyst User’s ManualOntario Ministry of Natural Resources Northwest Science and TechnologyThunder Bay, Ontario, Canada28 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Folay P. 1997. Extinction models for local populations.. In: Hanski I. and Gilpin M.E. (eds), Metapopulation biology: ecology, genetics, and evolution Academic Press, San Diegopp, pp. 215-246.Google Scholar
  13. Forsse E. 1989. Flight duration of eleven species of bark beetles (Scolytidae) and observations of aerial height distribution. Ph.D. thesis. Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  14. Fortin, M.J., Drapeau, P., Legendre, P. 1989Spatial Auto-Correlation and Sampling Design in Plant EcologyVegetatio83209222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franklin, A. 2001Dispersal of Ips typographus (ColeopteraScolytidae) in WalloniaBelgiumPh.D. thesis. Free University of BrusselsBrussels, Belgium101 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Gilbert, M., Gregoire J.-, C. 2003Site and stand conditions and predation influence a bark beetle’s successA spatially-realistic approach. Agricultural and Forest Entomology5110Google Scholar
  17. Gilbert, M., Fielding, N., Evans, H.F., Gregoire J.-, C. 2003Spatial patterns of invading Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) populations in the United KingdomCanadian Journal of Forest Research 33712725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Göthlin, E., Schroeder, L.M., Lindelow, A. 2000Attacks by Ips typographusPityogene schalcographus an windthrown spruces (Picea abies) during the two years following a storm fellingScandinavian Journal of Forest Research15542549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gregoire J.-, C. 1988The greater European spruce beetleBerryman, A.A. eds. Population Dynamics of Forest InsectsPlenumNew York, USApp.455-478.Google Scholar
  20. Gumpertz, M.L., Chi-Tsung, W., Pye, J.M. 2000Logistic regression for southern pine beetle outbreaks with spatial and temporal autocorrelationForest Science 4695107Google Scholar
  21. Hassel, M.P., Wilson, H.B. 1997The dynamics of spatially distributed host-parasitoid systems.Tilman, D.Kareiva, P. eds. Space Ecology: The Role of Space in Population Dynamics and Interspecific InteractionsPrinceton University PressPrinceton, USA75110Google Scholar
  22. Jactel H., Van Halder I., Menassieu P., Zhang Q.H. and Schlyter F. 2003. Non-host volatiles disrupt the response of the stenographer bark beetle,Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromone baiter traps and maritime pine logs. IPM Reviews, in press.Google Scholar
  23. Jactel, H., Goulard, M., Menassieu, P., Goujon, G. 2002Habitat diversity in forest plantations reduces infestations of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrellaJournal of Applied Ecology39618628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jakus, R. 1998Patch level variation of bark beetle attack (Col., Scolytidae) on snapped and uprooted trees in Norway spruce primeval natural forest in endemic condition: proportions of colonized surface and variability of ecological conditionsJournal of Applied Entomology Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie122543546Google Scholar
  25. Keitt, T.H., Bjornstad, O.N., Dixon, P.M., Citron-Pousty, S. 2002Accounting for spatial pattern when modeling organism- environment interactionsEcography25616625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kohnle, U., Densborn, S., Duhme, D., Vite, J.P. 1992Bark beetle attack on host logs reduced by spraying with repellentsJournal of Applied Entomology Zeitschrift Fur AngewandteEntomologie1148390Google Scholar
  27. Landmann G., Bouhot-Leduc L., Nageleisen L.- M. and Badeau V. 2000. Tempête sur les forêtsFrancaise : les rèseauxde surveillance sanitaire tèmoignent.. In: Dèpartement de la Santè des Forêts (eds), La santè des Forêts en 1999, Les Cahiers du DSF. Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche (DERF), Paris, France, pp. 45--50.Google Scholar
  28. Lieutier F., Day K., Battisti A., Gregoire J-C. and Evans H. 2004. Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in EuropeA Synthesis, Kluwer, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  29. Legendre, P., Dale, M.R.T., Fortin, M.J., Gurevitch, J., Hohn, M., Myers, D. 2002The consequences of spatial structure for the design and analysis of ecological field surveysEcography25601615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lennon, J.J. 2000Red-shifts and red herrings in geographical ecologyEcography23101113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meteo- France 2003a. Les tempêtes de decembre 1999. URL: Scholar
  32. eteo- France 2003b. Nombre de jours avec gel (Normales sur la periode 19611990). URL : Scholar
  33. Nageleisen L.M. 2002a. 2000 and 2001 results from the European network for forest damage monitoring. In: Departement de la Sante des Forêts (eds), La sante des Forêts en 2000 et 2001, Les Cahiers du DSF. Ministere de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche (DERF), Paris, France, pp. 70--80.Google Scholar
  34. Nageleisen L.M. 2002b. Insect colonisation of trees damaged during the 1999 windstorms : results from the national monitoring network. In: Dèpartement de la Santè des Forêts (eds), La santè des Forêts en 2000 et 2001, Les Cahiers du DSF. Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche (DERF), Paris, France, pp. 45--50.Google Scholar
  35. Nageleisen L.- M. 2000. La pullulation de scolytes dans le nord-est de la France de 1990 a‘ 1997 suite aux tempêtes de fèvrier 1990. In: Dèpartement de la Santè des Forêts (eds), La santè des Forêts en 1999, Les Cahiers du DSF. Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche (DERF), Paris, France, pp. 35--70.Google Scholar
  36. Nee, S., May, R.M., Hassel, M.P. 1997Two-species metapopulation models.Hanski, I.Gilpin, M.E. eds. Metapopulation biology: ecology, genetics, and evolutionAcademic PressSan Diego, California, USA123147Google Scholar
  37. Negron, J.F., Wilson, J.L., Anhold, J.A. 2000Stand conditions associated with roundheaded pine beetle (Coleoptera : Scolytidae) infestations in Arizona and UtahEnvironmental Entomology 292027Google Scholar
  38. Negron, J.F. 1998Probability of infestation and extent of mortality associated with the Douglas-fir beetle in the Colorado Front RangeForest Ecology and Management1077185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peltonen, M., Liebhold, A.M., Bjornstad,  O.N., Williams, D.W. 2002Spatial synchrony in forest insect outbreaks: Roles of regional stochasticity and dispersalEcology8331203129Google Scholar
  40. Peltonen, M. 1999Windthrows and dead-standing trees as bark beetle breeding material at forest-clearcut edgeScandinavian Journal of Forest Research14505511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peltonen, M., Heliovaara, K. 1998Incidence of Xylechinus pilosusCryphalus saltuarius (Scolytidae) in forest-clearcut edgesForest Ecology and Management103141147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Peltonen, M., Heliövaara, K., Väisänen, R. 1997Forest insects and environmental variation in stand edgesSilva Fennica 31129141Google Scholar
  43. Perkins, T.E., Matlack, G.R. 2002Human-generated pattern in commercial forests of southern Mississippi and consequences for the spread of pests and pathogensForest Ecology and Management157143154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Poland, T.M., Haack, R.A. 2000Pine shoot beetleTomicus piniperda (Col., Scolytidae), responses to common green leaf volatilesJournal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie1246369Google Scholar
  45. Powers, J.S., Sollins, P., Harmon, M.E., Jones, J.A. 1999Plant-pest interactions in time and space: a Douglas-fir bark beetle outbreaks as a case studyLandscape Ecology14105120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reeves, J.D., Ayres, M.P., Lorio, P.L. 1995Host suitability, predation, and bark beetle population dynamics.Cappucino, N.Price, P.W. eds. Population Dynamics, New Approaches and SynthesisAcademic PressNew-York, New York, USA339357Google Scholar
  47. Roland, J. 1993Large-scale forest fragmentation increases the duration of tent caterpillar outbreakOecologia932530Google Scholar
  48. Rossi, R.E., Mulla, D.J., Journel, A.G., Franz, E.H. 1992Geostatistical tools for modeling and interpreting ecological spatial dependenceEcological Monographs62277314Google Scholar
  49. Schlyter, F., Lofqvist, J. 1990Colonization pattern in the pine shoot beetleTomicus piniperda : effects of host declination, structure and presence of conspecificsEntomologia Experimentalis et Applicata54163172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schroeder, L.M., Weslien, J., Lindelow, A., Lindhe, A. 1999Attacks by bark- and wood-boring Coleoptera on mechanically created high stumps of Norway spruce in the two years following cuttingForest Ecology and Management1232130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thiel J. 1999. The development of bark beetles in logging residues in spruce stands. In: Forster B. Knizek M. Grodzki W. (eds), Methodology of forest insect and disease survey in Central Europe. Proceedings of the second workshop of the IUFROWP 7.03.10, April 20-23 1999, Sion, Switzerland. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, pp. 236--237. Google Scholar
  52. Zhang, Q.H., Schlyter, F. 2003Redundancy, synergismand active inhibitory range of non-host volatiles in reducing pheromone attraction in European spruce bark beetle Ips typographusOikos101299310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gilbert
    • 1
    • 2
  • L.-M. Nageleisen
    • 3
  • A. Franklin
    • 4
  • J.-C. Gregoire
    • 1
  1. 1.Lutte Biologique et Ecologie SpatialeFree University of BrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.National Fund for Scientific ResearchBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Forest Health DepartmentNancyFrance
  4. 4.Royal Belgian Institute of Natural SciencesBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations