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Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility

, Volume 36, Issue 4–5, pp 305–315 | Cite as

Focal adhesion kinase and its role in skeletal muscle

  • Zachary A. Graham
  • Philip M. Gallagher
  • Christopher P. Cardozo
Review

Abstract

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to respond to different physical stresses. Loading muscle through exercise, either anaerobic or aerobic, can lead to increases in muscle size and function while, conversely, the absence of muscle loading stimulates rapid decreases in size and function. A principal mediator of this load-induced change is focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase that translates the cytoskeletal stress and strain signals transmitted across the cytoplasmic membrane by integrins to activate multiple anti-apoptotic and cell growth pathways. Changes in FAK expression and phosphorylation have been found to correlate to specific developmental states in myoblast differentiation, muscle fiber formation and muscle size in response to loading and unloading. With the capability to regulate costamere formation, hypertrophy and glucose metabolism, FAK is a molecule with diverse functions that are important in regulating muscle cell health.

Keywords

Focal adhesion kinase Hypertrophy Muscle development Exercise 

Abbreviations

FAK

Focal adhesion kinase

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase

ERK1/2

Extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2

mTOR

Mechanistic target of rapamycin

SCI

Spinal cord injury

PKC

Protein kinase C

ECM

Extracellular matrix

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor 1

FERM

4.1 ezrin, radixin, moesin domain

FAT

Focal adhesion targeting

MDB2

Methyl CpG-binding protein 2

FRNK

Focal adhesion kinase-related non-kinase (FRNK)

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service grant (B9212C) and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, where Dr. Cardozo is a member of the Medical-Surgical Service and Dr. Graham is a member of the Research Service.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zachary A. Graham
    • 1
    • 3
  • Philip M. Gallagher
    • 2
  • Christopher P. Cardozo
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord InjuryJames J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical CenterBronxUSA
  2. 2.Applied Physiology LaboratoryUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacology and Systems TherapeuticsIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA

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