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Stretching and electrical stimulation reduce the accumulation of MyoD, myostatin and atrogin-1 in denervated rat skeletal muscle

  • Thiago L. Russo
  • Sabrina M. Peviani
  • João L. Q. Durigan
  • Davilene Gigo-Benato
  • Gabriel B. Delfino
  • Tania F. SalviniEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Denervation causes muscle atrophy and incapacity in humans. Although electrical stimulation (ES) and stretching (St) are commonly used in rehabilitation, it is still unclear whether they stimulate or impair muscle recovery and reinnervation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ES and St, alone and combined (ES + St), on the expression of genes that regulate muscle mass (MyoD, Runx1, atrogin-1, MuRF1 and myostatin), on muscle fibre cross-sectional area and excitability, and on the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in denervated rat muscle. ES, St and ES + St reduced the accumulation of MyoD, atrogin-1 and MuRF1 and maintained Runx1 and myostatin expressions at normal levels in denervated muscles. None of the physical interventions prevented muscle fibre atrophy or N-CAM expression in denervated muscles. In conclusion, although ES, St and ES + St changed gene expression, they were insufficient to avoid muscle fibre atrophy due to denervation.

Keywords

Skeletal muscle Gene expression Rehabilitation Muscle atrophy Nerve injury 

Abbreviations

CSA

Cross-sectional area

ES

Electrical stimulation

GAPDH

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

MRFs

Myogenic regulatory factors

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

MuRF1

Muscle-specific RING Finger protein-1

MyoD

Myogenic differentiation-1 

N-CAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

Runx1

Runt-related transcription factor 1

St

Stretching

TB

Toluidine blue/1% borax

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was funded by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, 07/03160-8) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). D Gigo-Benato and G B Delfino are PhD grant holders supported by FAPESP (Process numbers: 06/52931-4 and 08/03499-8, respectively). T L Russo and J L Q Durigan are post-doctoral grant holders supported by FAPESP (08/05237-0; 08/09408-4, respectively), and S M Peviani is a post-doctoral grant holder supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). The authors are grateful to Teresa F. F. Piassi for her technical support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thiago L. Russo
    • 1
  • Sabrina M. Peviani
    • 1
  • João L. Q. Durigan
    • 1
  • Davilene Gigo-Benato
    • 1
  • Gabriel B. Delfino
    • 1
  • Tania F. Salvini
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physical TherapyFederal University of São CarlosSão PauloBrazil

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