Advertisement

An efficient enhancement in thermal conductivity of water-based hybrid nanofluid containing MWCNTs-COOH and Ag nanoparticles: experimental study

Abstract

Synergistic effect of MWCNTs-COOH and Ag nanoparticle on improving thermal conductivity of hybrid nanofluid has been explained experimentally in this paper. Different concentrations of MWCNTs/water nanofluids (0.004, 0.008, 0.04 and 0.16 vol%) were used and mixed with (0.04 vol%) Ag nanoparticle to prepare hybrid nanofluid. TEM was employed for confirming the size of MWCNTs and Ag nanoparticles in base fluids. Furthermore, SEM and XPS were utilized to characterize the prepared hybrid nanofluid. The hybrid nanofluids’ thermal conductivity was measured in varying volume fractions at 20–50 °C temperatures. As shown by the results, the ratio of thermal conductivity of hybrid nanofluids is increased in a nonlinear manner as the concentration and temperature increase. It was seen that the hybrid nanofluid’s thermal conductivity having 0.04 vol% Ag nanoparticles and 0.16 vol% MWCNTs was synergistically improved by 47.3% in comparison with thermal conductivity the water base fluid. In the end, new thermal conductivity ratio correlation was suggested on the basis of the empirical data. Comparisons of correlation output and experimental thermal conductivity ratio data showed high accuracy and capability in modeling of thermal conductivity ratio data.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

Abbreviations

Ag:

Silver

K :

Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)

MWCNT:

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes

SEM:

Scanning electron microscope

T :

Temperature (°C)

TEM:

Transmission electron microscopy

THW:

Transient hot wire

DI:

Deionized

u :

Uncertainty (%)

vol:

Volume fraction

XRD:

X-ray crystallography

XPS:

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

w :

Mass of nanoparticles (g)

φ :

Nanoparticle concentration

bf:

Base fluid

Corr:

Correlation

Exp:

Experimental

NP:

Nanoparticles

nf:

Nanofluid

hnf:

Hybrid nanofluid

References

  1. 1.

    Moya M, Bruno JC, Eguia P, Torres E, Zamora I, Coronas A. Performance analysis of a trigeneration system based on a micro gas turbine and an air-cooled, indirect fired, ammonia-water absorption chiller. Appl Energy. 2011;88:4424–40.

  2. 2.

    Calise F. Design of a hybrid polygeneration system with solar collectors and a solid oxide fuel cell: dynamic simulation and economic assessment. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2011;36:6128–50.

  3. 3.

    Choi SUS. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. In: Proceedings of the ASME international mechanical engineering congress and exposition. San Francisco: ASME, FED; 1995. p. 99–105.

  4. 4.

    Patel HE, Das SK, Sundararajan T, Sreekumaran Nair A, George B, Pradeep T. Thermal conductivities of naked and monolayer protected metal nanoparticle based nanofluids: manifestation of anomalous enhancement and chemical effects. Appl Phys Lett. 2003;83:2931–3.

  5. 5.

    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Hormozi F. Investigation on heat transfer and pressure drop of copper-water nanofluid flow in plain and perforated channels. Exp Heat Transf. 2016;29:427–44.

  6. 6.

    Noghrehabadi A, Pourrajab R. Experimental investigation of forced convective heat transfer enhancement of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in a tube. J Mech Sci Technol. 2016;30:943–52.

  7. 7.

    Noghrehabadi A, Pourrajab R, Ghalambaz M. Effect of partial slip boundary condition on the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids past stretching sheet prescribed constant wall temperature. Int J Therm Sci. 2012;54:253–61.

  8. 8.

    Noghrehabadi A, Pourrajab R, Ghalambaz M. Flow and heat transfer of nanofluids over stretching sheet taking into account partial slip and thermal convective boundary conditions. Heat Mass Transf und Stoffuebertragung. 2013;49:1357–66.

  9. 9.

    Moreira LM, Carvalho EA, Bell MJV, Anjos V, Sant’ Ana AC, Alves APP, et al. Thermo-optical properties of silver and gold nanofluids. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;114:557–64.

  10. 10.

    Sheikholeslami M. Numerical approach for MHD Al2O3-water nanofluid transportation inside a permeable medium using innovative computer method. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 2019;344:306–18.

  11. 11.

    Fadodun OG, Amosun AA, Okoli NL, Olaloye DO, Durodola SS, Ogundeji JA. Sensitivity analysis of entropy production in Al2O3/H2O nanofluid through converging pipe. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09163-y.

  12. 12.

    Sheikholeslami M. New computational approach for exergy and entropy analysis of nanofluid under the impact of Lorentz force through a porous media. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 2019;344:319–33.

  13. 13.

    Shahsavar A, Godini A, Sardari PT, Toghraie D, Salehipour H. Impact of variable fluid properties on forced convection of Fe3O4/CNT/water hybrid nanofluid in a double-pipe mini-channel heat exchanger. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:1031–43.

  14. 14.

    Sheikholeslami M. Magnetic field influence on CuO–H2O nanofluid convective flow in a permeable cavity considering various shapes for nanoparticles. Int J Hydrogen Energy. 2017;42:19611–21.

  15. 15.

    Sheikholeslami M, Jafaryar M, Shafee A, Li Z. Nanofluid heat transfer and entropy generation through a heat exchanger considering a new turbulator and CuO nanoparticles. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;134:2295–303.

  16. 16.

    Bahiraei M, Hangi M, Saeedan M. A novel application for energy efficiency improvement using nanofluid in shell and tube heat exchanger equipped with helical baffles. Energy. 2015;93:2229–40.

  17. 17.

    Ali HM, Ali H, Liaquat H, Bin Maqsood HT, Nadir MA. Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer augmentation for car radiator using ZnO-water nanofluids. Energy. 2015;84:317–24.

  18. 18.

    Seyednezhad M, Sheikholeslami M, Ali JA, Shafee A, Nguyen TK. Nanoparticles for water desalination in solar heat exchanger. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08634-6.

  19. 19.

    Kasaeian A, Eshghi AT, Sameti M. A review on the applications of nanofluids in solar energy systems. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2015;43:584–98.

  20. 20.

    Jouybari HJ, Nimvari ME, Saedodin S. Thermal performance evaluation of a nanofluid-based flat-plate solar collector: an experimental study and analytical modeling. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:1757–74.

  21. 21.

    Mohebbi R, Mehryan SAM, Izadi M, Mahian O. Natural convection of hybrid nanofluids inside a partitioned porous cavity for application in solar power plants. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:1719–33.

  22. 22.

    Zeng J, Xuan Y. Enhanced solar thermal conversion and thermal conduction of MWCNT-SiO2/Ag binary nanofluids. Appl Energy. 2018;212:809–19.

  23. 23.

    Rajendran DR, Ganapathy Sundaram E, Jawahar P, Sivakumar V, Mahian O, Bellos E. Review on influencing parameters in the performance of concentrated solar power collector based on materials, heat transfer fluids and design. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08759-8.

  24. 24.

    Xie H, Chen L. Review on the preparation and thermal performances of carbon nanotube contained nanofluids. J Chem Eng Data. 2011;56:1030–41.

  25. 25.

    Rasheed AK, Khalid M, Rashmi W, Gupta TCSM, Chan A. Graphene based nanofluids and nanolubricants—review of recent developments. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;63:346–62.

  26. 26.

    Van Trinh P, Anh NN, Thang BH, Quang LD, Hong NT, Hong NM, et al. Enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluid-based ethylene glycol containing Cu nanoparticles decorated on a Gr-MWCNT hybrid material. RSC Adv. Royal Society of Chemistry. 2017;7:318–26.

  27. 27.

    Sparavigna A. Lattice specific heat of carbon nanotubes. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;93:983–6.

  28. 28.

    Sarkar J, Ghosh P, Adil A. A review on hybrid nanofluids: recent research, development and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2015;43:164–77.

  29. 29.

    Ghalambaz M, Doostani A, Izadpanahi E, Chamkha AJ. Conjugate natural convection flow of Ag–MgO/water hybrid nanofluid in a square cavity. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08617-7.

  30. 30.

    Ghalambaz M, Mehryan SAM, Izadpanahi E, Chamkha AJ, Wen D. MHD natural convection of Cu–Al2O3 water hybrid nanofluids in a cavity equally divided into two parts by a vertical flexible partition membrane. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;138:1723–43.

  31. 31.

    Pourrajab R, Noghrehabadi A, Hajidavalloo E, Behbahani M. Investigation of thermal conductivity of a new hybrid nanofluids based on mesoporous silica modified with copper nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and experimental study. J Mol Liq. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.112337.

  32. 32.

    Esfe MH, Rejvani M, Karimpour R, Abbasian Arani AA. Estimation of thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol-based nanofluid with hybrid suspensions of SWCNT–Al2O3 nanoparticles by correlation and ANN methods using experimental data. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;128:1359–71.

  33. 33.

    Abbasi S, Zebarjad SM, Baghban SHN, Youssefi A, Ekrami-Kakhki MS. Experimental investigation of the rheological behavior and viscosity of decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes with TiO2 nanoparticles/water nanofluids. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;123:81–9.

  34. 34.

    Shanbedi M, Zeinali Heris S, Maskooki A. Experimental investigation of stability and thermophysical properties of carbon nanotubes suspension in the presence of different surfactants. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;120:1193–201.

  35. 35.

    Ranjbar S, Masoumi H, Haghighi Khoshkhoo R, Mirfendereski M. Experimental investigation of stability and thermal conductivity of phase change materials containing pristine and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:1723–43.

  36. 36.

    Turcu R, Darabont A, Nan A, Aldea N, Macovei D, Bica D, et al. New polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials. J Optoelectron Adv Mater. 2006;8:643–7.

  37. 37.

    Jha N, Ramaprabhu S. Thermal conductivity studies of metal dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water and ethylene glycol based nanofluids. J Appl Phys. 2009;106:084317.

  38. 38.

    Rostamian SH, Biglari M, Saedodin S, Hemmat Esfe M. An inspection of thermal conductivity of CuO-SWCNTs hybrid nanofluid versus temperature and concentration using experimental data, ANN modeling and new correlation. J Mol Liq. 2017;231:364–9.

  39. 39.

    Megatif L, Ghozatloo A, Arimi A, Shariati-Niasar M. Investigation of laminar convective heat transfer of a novel TiO2-Carbon nanotube hybrid water-based nanofluid. Exp Heat Transf. 2016;29:124–38.

  40. 40.

    Nine MJ, Batmunkh M, Kim JH, Chung HS, Jeong HM. Investigation of Al2O3-MWCNTs hybrid dispersion in water and their thermal characterization. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2012;12:4553–9.

  41. 41.

    Shahsavar A, Salimpour MR, Saghafian M, Shafii MB. An experimental study on the effect of ultrasonication on thermal conductivity of ferrofluid loaded with carbon nanotubes. Thermochim Acta. 2015;617:102–10.

  42. 42.

    Chen LF, Cheng M, Yang DJ, Yang L. Enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluid by synergistic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Appl Mech Mater. 2014;548–549:118–23.

  43. 43.

    Zadkhast M, Toghraie D, Karimipour A. Developing a new correlation to estimate the thermal conductivity of MWCNT-CuO/water hybrid nanofluid via an experimental investigation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;129:859–67.

  44. 44.

    Farbod M, Ahangarpour A. Improved thermal conductivity of Ag decorated carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids. Phys Lett Sect A Gen At Solid State Phys. 2016;380:4044–8.

  45. 45.

    Munkhbayar B, Tanshen MR, Jeoun J, Chung H, Jeong H. Surfactant-free dispersion of silver nanoparticles into MWCNT-aqueous nanofluids prepared by one-step technique and their thermal characteristics. Ceram Int. 2013;39:6415–25.

  46. 46.

    Lee G-W, Lee JI, Sang-Soo L, Park M, Kim J. Comparisons of thermal properties between inorganic filler and acid-treated multiwall nanotube/polymer composites. J Mater Sci. 2005;40:1259–63.

  47. 47.

    Ghose S, Watson KA, Working DC, Connell JW, Smith JG Jr, Sun YP. Thermal conductivity of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer/nanofiller blends. Compos Sci Technol. 2008;68:1843–53.

  48. 48.

    Munkhbayar B, Hwang S, Kim J, Bae K, Ji M, Chung H, et al. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with various MWCNT counter electrode structures produced by different coating methods. Electrochim Acta. 2012;80:100–7.

  49. 49.

    Munkhbayar B, Nine MJ, Hwang S, Kim J, Bae K, Chung H, et al. Effect of grinding speed changes on dispersibility of the treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solution and its thermal characteristics. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif. 2012;61:36–41.

  50. 50.

    Hemmat Esfe M, Saedodin S, Mahian O, Wongwises S. Thermophysical properties, heat transfer and pressure drop of COOH-functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes/water nanofluids. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2014;58:176–83.

  51. 51.

    Dalkılıç AS, Türk OA, Mercan H, Nakkaew S, Wongwises S. An experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics of graphite-SiO2/water hybrid nanofluid flow in horizontal tube with various quad-channel twisted tape inserts. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2019;107:1–13.

  52. 52.

    Sedeh RN, Abdollahi A, Karimipour A. Experimental investigation toward obtaining nanoparticles’ surficial interaction with basefluid components based on measuring thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2019;103:72–82.

  53. 53.

    Sarafraz MM, Yang B, Pourmehran O, Arjomandi M, Ghomashchi R. Fluid and heat transfer characteristics of aqueous graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) nanofluid in a microchannel. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2019;107:24–33.

  54. 54.

    Ghaffarkhah A, Bazzi A, Azimi Dijvejin Z, Talebkeikhah M, Keshavarz Moraveji M, Agin F. Experimental and numerical analysis of rheological characterization of hybrid nano-lubricants containing COOH-Functionalized MWCNTs and oxide nanoparticles. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2019;101:103–15.

  55. 55.

    Nagasaka Y, Nagashima A. Absolute measurement of the thermal conductivity of electrically conducting liquids by the transient hot-wire method. J Phys E. 1981;14:1435–40.

  56. 56.

    Yamasue E, Susa M, Fukuyama H, Nagata K. Thermal conductivities of silicon and germanium in solid and liquid states measured by non-stationary hot wire method with silica coated probe. J Cryst Growth. 2002;234:121–31.

  57. 57.

    Howell RH. Principles of heating ventilating and air conditioning: a textbook with design data based on the 2017 Ashrae handbook fundamentals. ASHRAE; 2017.

  58. 58.

    Li FC, Yang JC, Zhou WW, He YR, Huang YM, Jiang BC. Experimental study on the characteristics of thermal conductivity and shear viscosity of viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluids containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Thermochim Acta. 2013;556:47–53.

  59. 59.

    Chon CH, Kihm KD, Lee SP, Choi SUS. Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid (Al2O3) thermal conductivity enhancement. Appl Phys Lett. 2005;87:1–3.

  60. 60.

    Baby TT, Sundara R. Synthesis and transport properties of metal oxide decorated graphene dispersed nanofluids. J Phys Chem C. 2011;115:8527–33.

  61. 61.

    Das SK, Choi SUS, Patel HE. Heat transfer in nanofluids—a review. Heat Transf Eng. 2006;27:3–19.

  62. 62.

    Esfahani NN, Toghraie D, Afrand M. A new correlation for predicting the thermal conductivity of ZnO–Ag (50%–50%)/water hybrid nanofluid: an experimental study. Powder Technol. 2018;323:367–73.

  63. 63.

    Mohamed RA, Habashy DM. Thermal conductivity modeling of propylene glycol-based nanofluid using artificial neural network. J Adv Phys. 2018;14:5281–91.

  64. 64.

    Mousavi SM, Esmaeilzadeh F, Wang XP. Effects of temperature and particles volume concentration on the thermophysical properties and the rheological behavior of CuO/MgO/TiO2 aqueous ternary hybrid nanofluid: experimental investigation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;137:879–901.

  65. 65.

    Hemmat-Esfe M, Esfandeh S, Rejvani M. Modeling of thermal conductivity of MWCNT-SiO2 (30:70%)/EG hybrid nanofluid, sensitivity analyzing and cost performance for industrial applications: an experimental based study. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131:1437–47.

  66. 66.

    Marquardt DW. An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters. J Soc Ind Appl Math. 1963;11:431–41.

  67. 67.

    Askeland DR. The science and engineering of materials. Ontario: Nelson Education; 1994.

  68. 68.

    Figliola RS, Beasley DE. Theory and design for mechanical measurements. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1995.

  69. 69.

    Sharifpur M, Tshimanga N, Meyer JP, Manca O. Experimental investigation and model development for thermal conductivity of α-Al2O3-glycerol nanofluids. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2017;85:12–22.

  70. 70.

    Teng TP, Hung YH, Teng TC, Mo HE, Hsu HG. The effect of alumina/water nanofluid particle size on thermal conductivity. Appl Therm Eng. 2010;30:2213–8.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Mohammad Behbahani.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pourrajab, R., Noghrehabadi, A., Behbahani, M. et al. An efficient enhancement in thermal conductivity of water-based hybrid nanofluid containing MWCNTs-COOH and Ag nanoparticles: experimental study. J Therm Anal Calorim (2020) doi:10.1007/s10973-020-09300-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Hybrid nanofluid
  • Thermal conductivity
  • MWCNTs-COOH
  • Ag
  • New correlation