An efficient enhancement in thermal conductivity of water-based hybrid nanofluid containing MWCNTs-COOH and Ag nanoparticles: experimental study


Synergistic effect of MWCNTs-COOH and Ag nanoparticle on improving thermal conductivity of hybrid nanofluid has been explained experimentally in this paper. Different concentrations of MWCNTs/water nanofluids (0.004, 0.008, 0.04 and 0.16 vol%) were used and mixed with (0.04 vol%) Ag nanoparticle to prepare hybrid nanofluid. TEM was employed for confirming the size of MWCNTs and Ag nanoparticles in base fluids. Furthermore, SEM and XPS were utilized to characterize the prepared hybrid nanofluid. The hybrid nanofluids’ thermal conductivity was measured in varying volume fractions at 20–50 °C temperatures. As shown by the results, the ratio of thermal conductivity of hybrid nanofluids is increased in a nonlinear manner as the concentration and temperature increase. It was seen that the hybrid nanofluid’s thermal conductivity having 0.04 vol% Ag nanoparticles and 0.16 vol% MWCNTs was synergistically improved by 47.3% in comparison with thermal conductivity the water base fluid. In the end, new thermal conductivity ratio correlation was suggested on the basis of the empirical data. Comparisons of correlation output and experimental thermal conductivity ratio data showed high accuracy and capability in modeling of thermal conductivity ratio data.

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K :

Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Multi-wall carbon nanotubes


Scanning electron microscope

T :

Temperature (°C)


Transmission electron microscopy


Transient hot wire



u :

Uncertainty (%)


Volume fraction


X-ray crystallography


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

w :

Mass of nanoparticles (g)

φ :

Nanoparticle concentration


Base fluid










Hybrid nanofluid


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Pourrajab, R., Noghrehabadi, A., Behbahani, M. et al. An efficient enhancement in thermal conductivity of water-based hybrid nanofluid containing MWCNTs-COOH and Ag nanoparticles: experimental study. J Therm Anal Calorim (2020) doi:10.1007/s10973-020-09300-y

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  • Hybrid nanofluid
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Ag
  • New correlation