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Evaluate the deflagration potential for commercial cylinder Li-ion cells under adiabatic confinement testing

  • Yih-Wen WangEmail author
Article
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Abstract

The pressure elevation related to the variances in temperature for cylinder Li-ion cells including LiCoO2, LiMnO2, LiFePO4, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes was compared with their explosive behaviors. 50 and 100% state of charges Li-ion cells were examined the pressure rising rates in an open-circuit voltage condition using adiabatic calorimetry. A charged cell underwent an extremely runaway reaction at elevated temperatures and caused a thermal explosion due to high potential energy of the battery system and interaction with the components. This study presented the relationships between temperature and pressure in a Li-ion cell proceeding on a thermal explosion in the adiabatic confinement testing. The layer-structure LiCoO2 cell has the significant deflagration potential for condensed phase explosion. Moreover, the considerable quantities of gas eruption from a charged cell can be resulted in battery rupture and flames from a confined energy storage system. The critical temperature to thermal explosion model for a cylinder Li-ion cell was evaluated to classify their runaway reaction and deflagration potential.

Keywords

Pressure elevation Cylinder Li-ion cell Thermal explosion Adiabatic confinement testing Deflagration potential 

List of symbols

a

Constant

b

Constant

cv

Total heat capacity, J g−1 K−1

d

Constant

(dT/dt)ad

Self-heating rate under an adiabatic condition, °C min−1

dp/dt

Pressure rising rate, bar min−1

E0

Li chemical potential, V

Ea

Apparent activation energy, eV

Edyn

Thermal explosion expression, kJ

Eiso

Isothermal expansion, kJ

F

Faraday constant, 96,487 C mol−1

G

Change in Gibbs free energy, J

H

Enthalpy, J

i

Constant

j

Constant

m

Constant

k0

Frequency factor, min−1

kB

Boltzmann’s constant, 8.62e−5 eV K−1

mLIB

Mass of the LIB, g

n

The charged number carried by the exchanged Li ion

ni

Moles of reactants, mole

nf

Moles of products, mole

p

Pressure, barg

p0

Ambient pressure, 1.01 barg

p1

Absolute pressure, barg

pcr

Critical pressure in a turning from thermal runaway to explosion, barg

ppeak

Peak pressure, barg

pmax

Maximum pressure, barg

Q

Heat generation, W

R

Ideal gas constant, 8.314 J  K−1 mol−1

r

Constant

S

Entropy, J K−1

SoC

State of charge, %

t

Time

T

Temperature, °C or K

T0

Apparent exothermic onset temperature, °C or K

Tcr

Critical temperature from runaway to explosion, °C or K

UOCV

Open-circuit voltage, V

v

Volume of a Li-ion cell

We

Electric work, J

x

Degree of conversion

α

Ionic composition

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is indebted to the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 104-2221-E-039-005-MY2) for providing financial support of this study.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Occupational Safety and Health, College of Public HealthChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan, ROC

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