Experimental investigation of the hydrothermal aspects of water–Fe3O4 nanofluid inside a twisted tube

  • Mohammadreza Niknejadi
  • Masoud AfrandEmail author
  • Arash Karimipour
  • Amin Shahsavar
  • Amir Homayoon Meghdadi Isfahani


The impetus of this experimental investigation is to analyze the laminar forced convection of water-based nanofluid (NF) including Fe3O4 nanoparticles inside a twisted tube. The impacts of NF concentration (0% < \( \varphi \) < 2%), Reynolds number (500 < \( {\text{Re}} \) < 2000) and twist pitch (10–100 mm) on the average Nusselt number (\( \overline{\text{Nu}} \)), friction factor, and overall hydrothermal performance indicator are assessed, and the results are compared with those of the plain tube. It was found that the \( \overline{\text{Nu}} \) of NF rises with boosting \( \varphi \) and \( {\text{Re}} \), while it declines with boosting twist pitch. In addition, it was found that the rise of \( \varphi \) causes a rise in the friction factor, while it diminishes with the rise of \( {\text{Re}} \) and twist pitch. Moreover, the results depicted that the overall hydrothermal performance of NF in the twisted tube is superior to that of the water in the plain tube. The best overall hydrothermal performance of the NF occurred at \( \varphi \) = 2%, \( {\text{Re}} \) = 2000 and twist pitch = 10 mm.


Convective heat transfer Friction factor Nusselt number Pressure drop Twisted tube Water–Fe3O4 nanofluid 

List of symbols


Heat transfer surface area (m2)

\( c_{\text{p}} \)

Specific heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)

\( D_{\text{h}} \)

Hydraulic diameter (m)


Friction factor (–)


Convection coefficient (W m−2 K−1)


Conduction coefficient (W m−1 K−1)


Tube length (m)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Nusselt number (–)


Prandtl number (–)

\( \Delta p \)

Pressure drop (Pa)


Convection heat transfer rate (W)


Reynolds number (–)

\( T_{\text{b}} \)

Average bulk fluid temperature (°C)

\( T_{\text{in}} \)

Inlet temperature (°C)

\( T_{\text{out}} \)

Outlet temperature (°C)

\( T_{\text{w}} \)

Average wall temperature (°C)


Velocity (m s−1)

Greek symbols

\( \rho \)

Density (kg m−3)

\( \varphi \)

Volume concentration (%)

\( \mu \)

Viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)

\( \eta \)

Performance indicator (–)







Plain tube


Twisted tube





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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKermanshah University of TechnologyKermanshahIran

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