Advertisement

Effect of thermostatic expansion valve tuning on the performance enhancement and environmental impact of a mobile air conditioning system

  • 14 Accesses

Abstract

In this work, the performance enhancement of a HFO-1234yf mobile air conditioning (MAC) system with a suction/liquid line heat exchanger (SLHX) was carried out experimentally by tuning the thermostatic (constant superheat) expansion valve (TXV) and its impact on the environment was also evaluated. The optimum charge of HFO-1234yf and HFC-134a systems was found to be 670 g and 740 g, respectively. The results showed that the HFO-1234yf system with SLHX had better coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency when compared to HFC-134a system with SLHX at idling condition, whereas it had reduced performance at other speed conditions. The tuning of the TXV in the HFO-1234yf system had a positive influence on the COP, cooling capacity, and exergy efficiency and those were higher than that of existing HFC-134a system by 4.3–8.6%, 6.5–10.1%, and 3.7–5.1%, respectively, at idling and city speed conditions, whereas those were slightly lower at high-speed conditions. The total CO2 equivalent emission of tuned and un-tuned HFO-1234yf system was 27.98% and 24.64% lower than that of the existing HFC-134a system. The outcome of this study indicated that the SLHX implementation in the HFO-1234yf MAC system with tuned TXV could be a possible option to replace HFC-134a.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

Abbreviations

CC:

Compressor volumetric capacity (m3 min−1)

CFC:

Chlorofluorocarbon

GWP:

Global warming potential

HC:

Hydrocarbon

HFC:

Hydrofluorocarbon

HFO:

Hydrofluoroolefin

HVAC:

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

IRD:

Integrated receiver dryer

MAC:

Mobile air conditioning

ODP:

Ozone depleting potential

RPM:

Revolution per minute

RPS:

Regulated power supply

SLHX:

Suction line heat exchanger

TEWI:

Total equivalent warming impact

TFA:

Trifluoroacetic acid

TXV:

Thermostatic expansion valve

VCR:

Vapour compression refrigeration

VFD:

Variable frequency drive

COP:

Coefficient of performance

DBT:

Dry bulb temperature (°C)

DSC:

Degree of subcooling (°C)

DSH:

Degree of superheating (°C)

\(\dot{E}\) :

Exergy rate (kW)

ED:

Exergy destruction rate (kW)

EDR:

Exergy destruction ratio

h :

Enthalpy (kJ kg−1)

L :

Average refrigerant leakage (%)

\(\dot{m}\) :

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)

M f :

Mass of fuel used (L)

M s :

Refrigerant charge quantity (g)

N :

System lifetime (years)

P :

Pressure (bar)

Q :

Heat transfer (kW)

RH:

Relative humidity (%)

\(\dot{S}\) :

Entropy (kJ kg−1 K−1)

T :

Temperature (°C)

W :

Work consumption (kW)

Y :

Variables that represents COP, cooling capacity or exergy efficiency

α :

Percentage of refrigerant recover (%)

β :

CO2 emission factor

\(\dot{\vartheta }\) :

Specific volume (m3 kg−1)

\(\varepsilon\) :

\(\frac{{Y_{{{\text{HFO}} - 1234{\text{yf}} - }} Y_{{{\text{HFO}} - 134{\text{a}}}} }}{{Y_{{{\text{HFO}} - 134{\text{a}}}} }}\)

η :

Efficiency (%)

comp:

Compressor

cond:

Condenser

d:

Discharge

ele:

Motor electrical power

evap:

Evaporator

ex:

Exergy

exp:

Expansion device

gen:

Generation

in:

Inlet

L.S:

Liquid side

O:

Dead state

ot:

Outlet

r:

Refrigerant

ref:

Reference state

V.S:

Vapour side

References

  1. 1.

    Dutt GS. Energy-efficient and environment-friendly refrigerators. Int Energy Sustain Dev. 1995;1(5):57–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0973-0826(08)60089-7.

  2. 2.

    UNEP. The Kigali amendment to the montreal protocol: HFC phase-down. In: 28th meeting of parties to Montreal protocol. 2016, Kigali, Rwanda.

  3. 3.

    Directive 2006/40/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 17 May relating to emissions from air conditioning systems in motor vehicles and amending council directive 70/156/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union. 2006;161:12–18. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:161:0012:0018:EN:PDF.

  4. 4.

    Lambert MA, Jones BJ. Automotive adsorption air conditioner powered by automotive exhaust, part 1: conceptual and embodiment design. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part D J Automob Eng. 2006;220(7):959–72. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544070JAUTO221.

  5. 5.

    Mohanraj M. Energy performance assessment of R430A as a possible alternative refrigerant to R134a in domestic refrigerators. Energy Sustain Dev. 2013;17:471–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2013.05.005.

  6. 6.

    Sanchez D, Cabello R, Llopis R, Arauzo I, Catalan-Gil J, Torrella E. Energy performance evaluation of R1234yf, R1234ze(E), R600a, R290 and R152a as low-GWP R134a alternatives. Int J Refrig. 2017;74:269–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2016.09.020.

  7. 7.

    Tanaka K, Higashi Y. Thermodynamic property modelling for 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropene (R-1234yf). Int J Refrig. 2010;33:52–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2009.10.003.

  8. 8.

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34. Designation and safety classification of refrigerants. 2013. ISSN:1041-2336. https://www.ashrae.org/File%20Library/Technical%20Resources/Standards%20and%20Guidelines/Standards%20Addenda/34_2013_2015Supplement_20150210.pdf.

  9. 9.

    Nielsen OJ, Javadi MS, Andersen MPS, Hurley MD, Wallington TJ, Singh R. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CF = CH2: Kinetics and mechanisms of gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3’. Chem Phys Lett. 2007;439:18–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2007.03.053.

  10. 10.

    Lueken DJ, Waterland RT, Papasavva S, Taddonio KN, Hutzell WT, Rugh JP, Andersen SO. Ozone and TFA impacts in North America from degradation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf), a potential greenhouse gas replacement. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:343–8. https://doi.org/10.1021/es902481f.

  11. 11.

    Kajihara H. Estimation of environmental concentrations and deposition fluxes of R-1234yf and its decomposition products emitted from air conditioning equipment to atmosphere. In: International symposium on next-generation air conditioning and refrigeration technology, Tokyo, 2010.

  12. 12.

    Lewandowski TA. Additional risk assessments of alternative refrigerant R1234yf. SAE International CRP1234-4 report, 2013.

  13. 13.

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). protection of stratospheric ozone: change of listing status for certain substitutes under the significant new alternatives policy program; final rule. Federal register, rules and regulations 2015; 80(138): July 20.

  14. 14.

    Jarall S. Study of refrigeration system with HFO-1234yf as a working fluid. Int J Refrig. 2012;35:1668–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2012.03.007.

  15. 15.

    Mota-Babiloni A, Navarro-Esbri J, Barragan-Cervera A, Moles F, Peris B. Drop-in energy performance evaluation of R1234yf and R1234ze(E) in a vapour compression system as R134a replacements. Appl Therm Eng. 2014;71:259–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.06.056.

  16. 16.

    Lee Y, Jung D. A brief performance comparison of R1234yf and R134a in a bench tester for automobile applications. Appl Therm Eng. 2012;35:240–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.004.

  17. 17.

    Sukri MF, Musa MN, Senawi MY, Nasution H. Achieving a better energy-efficient automotive air-conditioning system: a review of potential technologies and strategies for vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Energy Eff. 2015;8:1201–29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12053-015-9389-4.

  18. 18.

    Junye S, Cichhong L, Jichao H, Yu Z, Jiangping C. Experimental research and optimization on the environmental friendly R1234yf refrigerant in automobile air conditioning system. J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ (Sci.). 2016;21(5):548–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12204-016-1761-9.

  19. 19.

    Zilio C, Brown JS, Schiochet G, Cavallini A. The refrigerant R1234yf in air conditioning systems. Energy. 2011;36:6110–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.08.002.

  20. 20.

    Rajendran P, Dhasan ML, Narayanaswamy GR. Tuning thermostatic expansion valve for implementing suction line heat exchanger in mobile air conditioning system. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng. 2019;41:191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-019-1680-4.

  21. 21.

    Devecioglu AG, Oruc V. Improvement on the energy performance of a refrigeration system adapting a plate-type heat exchanger and low-GWP refrigerants as alternatives to R134a. Energy. 2018;155:105–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.032.

  22. 22.

    Desai AD, Sapli SN, Garikipati PV. Development of energy efficient R-134a automotive air conditioning system using internal heat exchanger. International proceedings of the world congress on engineering, Vol. III, July 6–8, 2011, London, U.K. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c077/f5d5b1f6f1df0eaf6d713171e64cff00b3c6.pdf.

  23. 23.

    Navarro-Esbri J, Moles F, Barragan-Cervera A. Experimental analysis of the internal heat exchanger influence on a vapour compression system performance working with R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a. Appl Therm Eng. 2013;59:153–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2013.05.028.

  24. 24.

    Cho H, Lee H, Park C. Performance characteristics of an automobile air conditioning system with internal heat exchanger using refrigerant R1234yf. Appl Therm Eng. 2013;61:563–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2013.08.030.

  25. 25.

    Kurata S, Suzuki T, Ogura K. Double-pipe internal heat exchanger for efficiency improvement in front automotive air conditioning system. 2007. SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1523. https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-1523.

  26. 26.

    Qi Z, Zhao Y, Chen J. Performance enhancement study of mobile air conditioning system using microchannel heat exchanger. Int J Refrig. 2010;33:301–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2009.08.014.

  27. 27.

    Cho H, Park C. Experimental investigation of performance and exergy analysis of automotive air conditioning systems using refrigerant R1234yf at various compressor speeds. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;101:30–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.01.153.

  28. 28.

    Paradeshi L, Mohanraj M, Srinivas M, Jayaraj S. Exergy analysis of direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pumps working with R22 and R433A. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;134:2223–37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7424-3.

  29. 29.

    Prabakaran R, Lal DM. A novel exergy based charge optimisation for a mobile air conditioning system—an experimental study. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;132:1241–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-6998-0.

  30. 30.

    Golzari S, Kasaeian A, Daviran S, Mahian O, Wongwises S, Sahin AZ. Second law analysis of an automotive air conditioning system using HFO-1234yf, an environmentally friendly refrigerant. Int J Refrig. 2017;73:134–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2016.09.009.

  31. 31.

    Wu X, Hu S, Mo S. Carbon footprint model for evaluating the global warming impact of food transport refrigeration systems. J Clean Prod. 2013;54:115–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.04.045.

  32. 32.

    Papasavvaa S, Andersen SO. GREEN-MAC-LCCP: life-cycle climate performance metric for mobile air conditioning technology choice. Environ Prog Sustain Energy. 2011;30(2):234–47. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.10465.

  33. 33.

    Abraham JAP, Mohanraj M. Thermodynamic performance of automobile air conditioners working with R430A as a drop-in substitute to R134a. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;136(5):2071–86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7843-1.

  34. 34.

    Mastrullo R, Mauro AW, Vellucci C. Refrigerant alternatives for high speed train A/C systems: energy savings and environmental emissions evaluation under variable ambient conditions. Energy Proc. 2016;101:280–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.11.036.

  35. 35.

    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A. An experimental evaluation of the greenhouse effect in the substitution of R134a with CO2. Energy. 2012;45:753–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.07.015.

  36. 36.

    SAE J 2765. Procedure for measuring system COP (Coefficient of Performance) of a mobile air conditioning system on a test bench; 2008. https://saemobilus.sae.org/content/j2765_200810.

  37. 37.

    Prabakaran R, Lal DM, Prabhakaran A, Kumar JK. Experimental investigations on the performance enhancement using minichannel evaporator with integrated receiver-dryer condenser in an automotive air conditioning system. Heat Transf Eng. 2019;40(8):667–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/01457632.2018.1436663.

  38. 38.

    Rajendran P, Sidney S, Ramakrishnan I, Dhasan ML. Experimental studies on the performance of mobile air conditioning system using environmental friendly HFO-1234yf as a refrigerant. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part E J Process Mech Eng. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954408919881236.

  39. 39.

    Dincer I, Kanoglu M. Refrigeration systems and applications. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 2010.

  40. 40.

    Lemmon EW, Huber ML, McLinden MO. Reference fluid thermodynamic and transport (REFPROP). Version 8.0, NIST standard database 23, 2007. National Institute of Standard and technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

  41. 41.

    Moffat RJ. Describing the uncertainties in experimental results. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci. 1988;1:3–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/0894-1777(88)90043-X.

  42. 42.

    Zhao Y, Qi Z, Chen J, Xu B, He B. Experimental analysis of the low—GWP refrigerant R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a typical mobile air conditioning system. Proc Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci. 2012;226:2713–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954406211435583.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The author acknowledges the Anna University, Centre for Research (Ref.No:CFR/ACRF/2015/4/dated 21.01.15) for providing research fellowship towards conducting this research work. The MAC system components for this research work were provided by Mahindra Research Valley (MRV), Chennai—603204.

Author information

Correspondence to Dhasan Mohan Lal.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Sukumar Devotta—Former Director.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Prabakaran, R., Lal, D.M. & Devotta, S. Effect of thermostatic expansion valve tuning on the performance enhancement and environmental impact of a mobile air conditioning system. J Therm Anal Calorim (2020) doi:10.1007/s10973-019-09224-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Global warming potential
  • HFO-1234yf
  • Total equivalent warming impact
  • Suction line heat exchanger
  • Thermostatic expansion valve
  • COP