Probing the combustion and pyrolysis behaviors of polyurethane foam from waste refrigerators
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Polyurethane foam (PUR) from waste refrigerators has long been recognized as a difficult-to-treat electronic waste, due to its bulkiness, low weight and chlorofluorocarbon content. In this work, the combustion and pyrolysis behaviors of PUR were investigated using a versatile thermogravimetric–Fourier infrared spectrum–mass spectrum (TG/FT-IR/MS) technique. The decomposition mechanisms in both thermal processes were determined, and the fate of halogens was probed well. TG analysis indicated that the PUR combustion could be divided into three main stages with peak temperatures of 328, 557 and 970 °C, respectively. As a comparison, its pyrolysis could be divided into two steps with peak temperatures of 332 and 970 °C. FT-IR results indicated that the PUR combusted vigorously at 400–600 °C, whereas it decomposed drastically at the lower temperature of 200–400 °C in pyrolysis. MS analysis revealed that the urethane bonds in the PUR molecules broke into isocyanates and polyols at 200–400 °C in combustion, which further decomposed at 400–650 °C and reacted with halogens. However, the ester bonds ruptured into aromatic nitro compounds and ethers at 200 °C below in pyrolysis. At higher temperature range of 200–500 °C, more halogenated derivatives were detected with lower intensity. In addition to the halogenated products such as chlorofluorocarbons, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, o-chloroaniline, and trifluoroacetone, small molecules of hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide were all detected.
KeywordsPolyurethane foam Combustion Pyrolysis Decomposition mechanism Fate of halogens
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51606055 and 51911530460) and Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LY19B070008).
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