Experimental study of the subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of magnetic nanofluid in a vertical tube under magnetic field

  • Sajjad Ahangar ZonouziEmail author
  • Rahmatollah Khodabandeh
  • Habibollah Safarzadeh
  • Habib AminfarEmail author
  • Mousa Mohammadpourfard
  • Morteza Ghanbarpour


In this study, the subcooled boiling heat transfer of a Fe3O4/water magnetic nanofluid flowing through a vertical tube has been investigated experimentally in the presence and absence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field has been generated by quadrupole magnets. The subcooled boiling heat transfer coefficient and the boiling curves of the ferrofluid flow under the action of the magnetic field have been compared with those in the absence of magnetic field. The results showed that magnetic actuation contributes to have higher heat fluxes at the same wall superheat in comparison with heat fluxes achieved in the no magnetic field case. Therefore, the local subcooled boiling heat transfer coefficients are increased by the magnetic field. The maximum measured enhancement in local subcooled boiling heat transfer coefficient along the length of the tube by applying magnetic field is 46.58% at applied heat flux of 77,000 W m−2 and mass flux of 270 kg m−2 s−1. Furthermore, the enhancement of local heat transfer coefficient by applying magnetic field decreases as the applied heat flux in the subcooled boiling region is increased.


Subcooled flow boiling Magnetic nanofluid Quadrupole magnetic field Experimental study 

List of symbols


Specific heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)


Tube diameter (m)


Mass flux (kg m−2 s−1)


Heat transfer coefficient (Wm−2 K−1)




Thermal conductivity (Wm−1 K−1)


Length (m)


Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Nusselt number, hd/k


Prandtl number, \(\frac{{\mu c_{\text{p}} }}{k}\)


Reynolds number, \(\frac{{4\dot{m}}}{\pi d\mu }\)


Pressure drop (Pa)


Heat flux (W m−2)


Temperature (°C)




Axial distance (m)


Velocity (m s−1)

Greek symbols


Density (kg m−3)


Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)









Axial direction



  1. 1.
    Mudawar I. Assessment of high-heat-flux thermal management schemes. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol. 2001. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zonouzi SA, Safarzadeh H, Aminfar H, Mohammadpourfard M. Experimental study of subcooled boiling heat transfer of axial and swirling flows inside mini annular gaps. J Appl Fluid Mech. 2018;11:225–32. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang H, Mudawar I, Hasan MM. Application of flow boiling for thermal management of electronics in microgravity and reduced-gravity space systems. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol. 2009. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahangar Zonouzi S, Safarzadeh H, Aminfar H, Mohammadpourfard M. Experimental and numerical study of swirling subcooled flow boiling of water in a vertical annulus. Exp Heat Transf. 2018;31:513–30. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saedi M, Aminfar H, Mohammadpourfard M, Maroofi R. Simulation of ferrofluid flow boiling in helical tubes using two-fluid model. Heat Mass Transf. 2018. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Taheri MH, Mohammadpourfard M, Sadaghiani AK, Kosar A. Wettability alterations and magnetic field effects on the nucleation of magnetic nanofluids: a molecular dynamics simulation. J Mol Liq. 2018;260:209–20. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim SJ, McKrell T, Buongiorno J, Hu L-W. Alumina nanoparticles enhance the flow boiling critical heat flux of water at low pressure. J Heat Transf. 2008. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim SJ, McKrell T, Buongiorno J, Hu LW. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of dilute alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanofluids at atmospheric pressure. Nucl Eng Des. 2010. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coursey JS, Kim J. Nanofluid boiling: the effect of surface wettability. Int J Heat Fluid Flow. 2008. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun B, Yang D. Flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of nano-refrigerants in a horizontal tube. Int J Refrig. 2014. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heris SZ. Experimental investigation of pool boiling characteristics of low-concentrated CuO/ethylene glycol-water nanofluids. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2011. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Amiri A, Shanbedi M, Amiri H, Heris SZ, Kazi SN, Chew BT, Eshghi H. Pool boiling heat transfer of CNT/water nanofluids. Appl Therm Eng. 2014. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sarafraz MM, Peyghambarzadeh SM. Experimental study on subcooled flow boiling heat transfer to water-diethylene glycol mixtures as a coolant inside a vertical annulus. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2013. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Çikim T, Armagan E, Ozaydin Ince G, Kosar A. Flow boiling enhancement in microtubes with crosslinked pHEMA coatings and the effect of coating thickness. J Heat Transf. 2014. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sardarabadi H, Heris SZ, Ahmadpour A, Passandideh-Fard M. Experimental investigation of a novel type of two-phase closed thermosyphon filled with functionalized carbon nanotubes/water nanofluids for electronic cooling application. Energy Convers Manag. 2019. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosensweig R. Ferrohydrodynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1985.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hosseinzadeh M, Heris SZ, Beheshti A, Shanbedi M. Convective heat transfer and friction factor of aqueous Fe3O4 nanofluid flow under laminar regime: an experimental investigation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zonouzi SA, Aminfar H, Mohammadpourfard M. A review on effects of magnetic fields and electric fields on boiling heat transfer and CHF. Appl Therm Eng. 2019. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mohammadpourfard M, Zonouzi SA, Mohseni F. Numerical study of the hydrothermal behavior and exergy destruction of magnetic nanofluid in curved rectangular microchannels. Heat Transf Res. 2015. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aminfar H, Mohammadpourfard M, Zonouzi SA. Numerical investigation of the transient hydrothermal behavior of a ferrofluid flowing through a helical duct in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field. J Heat Transf. 2014. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shanbedi M, Amiri A, Heris SZ, Eshghi H, Yarmand H. Effect of magnetic field on thermo-physical and hydrodynamic properties of different metals-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes-based water coolants in a closed conduit. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kamiyama S, Okubo M, Fujisawa F. Recent developments of technology in magnetic fluid experiments. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 1992. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chiang YC, Kuo WC, Ho CC, Chieh JJ. Experimental study on thermal performances of heat pipes for air-conditioning systems influenced by magnetic nanofluids, external fields, and micro wicks. Int J Refrig. 2014. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stoian F, Pop G, Bica D, Stoica V, Marinică O, Vékás L. A fundamental study regarding the control of nucleate boiling in a complex magnetizable fluid by an applied magnetic field, in microgravity conditions. In: AIP conference proceedings 654, 2003.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Iwamoto Y, Niu XD, Yamaguchi H, Okuda R, Kuwahara T. Heat transport characteristics of a magnetically-driven heat transport device using a binary temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid. Magnetohydrodynamics. 2012;48:435–43. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zonouzi SA, Khodabandeh R, Safarzadeh H, Aminfar H, Trushkina Y, Mohammadpourfard M, Ghanbarpour M, Alvarez GS. Experimental investigation of the flow and heat transfer of magnetic nanofluid in a vertical tube in the presence of magnetic quadrupole field. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2018. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee T, Kam DH, Lee JH, Jeong YH. Effects of two-phase flow conditions on flow boiling CHF enhancement of magnetite-water nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2014;74:278–84. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Choi YJ, Kam DH, Jeong YH. Corrigendum to “Analysis of CHF enhancement by magnetite nanoparticle deposition in the subcooled flow boiling region” [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 109 (2017) 1191–1199] (S0017931016334962) (, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 111 (2017) 666.
  29. 29.
    Salehi H, Heris SZ, Noie SH. Experimental study of a two-phase closed thermosyphon with nanofluid and magnetic field effect. J Enhanc Heat Transf. 2011. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ali N, Teixeira JA, Addali A. A review on nanofluids: fabrication, stability, and thermophysical properties. J. Nanomater. 2018. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shi E, Zang X, Jiang C, Mohammadpourfard M. Entropy generation analysis for thermomagnetic convection of paramagnetic fluid inside a porous enclosure in the presence of magnetic quadrupole field. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Heris SZ, Edalati Z, Noie SH, Mahian O. Experimental investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid through equilateral triangular duct with constant wall heat flux in laminar flow. Heat Transf. Eng. 2014. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shah MM. New correlation for heat transfer during subcooled boiling in plain channels and annuli. Int J Therm Sci. 2017. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuhlman JM, Gray DD. Effects of the magnetic kelvin force on pool boiling in microgravity. In: 39th AIAA thermophysics conference; 2007.

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajjad Ahangar Zonouzi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rahmatollah Khodabandeh
    • 2
  • Habibollah Safarzadeh
    • 3
  • Habib Aminfar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mousa Mohammadpourfard
    • 4
  • Morteza Ghanbarpour
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Energy TechnologyRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH)StockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringRazi UniversityKermanshahIran
  4. 4.Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations