Evaluation of pyrolysis and combustion products from foundry binders: potential hazards in metal casting

  • Angelika KmitaEmail author
  • Aleksandra Benko
  • Agnieszka Roczniak
  • Mariusz Holtzer


The aim of this paper is the comparison of the thermal destruction course of one of the commercially available binders applied in the ALPHASET technology in dependence of the temperature, heating rate and the character of the atmosphere (inert, oxidising or reducing). The thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/DSC/FTIR) system allowed for real-time analysis of the composition and intensity of gases emitted during slow heating in the inert and oxidising atmospheres. In addition, the TG/DTG/DSC investigation of the binder was performed in the reducing atmosphere. The pyrolysis gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry system allowed for the analysis of gases evolved at very fast heating in the inert atmosphere (pyrolysis) as a function of temperature. It has been proven that the type and amount of the gases emitted is highly dependent on the temperature, heating rate and the atmosphere in which it is performed. The highest versatility of harmful volatiles is produced during heating in the inert atmosphere. This type of atmosphere is present in the closest proximity of the liquid metal. Thus, to reduce the risk of exposure of the foundry workers, the extraction of the casting should be done under the hood, and sufficient personal protective equipment should be used.


Resole resin Thermal decomposition Pyrolysis Combustion Hazardous gaseous compounds Environment 



Thermogravimetric analysis


Differential scanning calorimetry


Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy


Pyrolysis gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry




Registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals



This work was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (Grant Number 2016/23/D/ST8/00013).

Supplementary material

10973_2019_9031_MOESM1_ESM.docx (763 kb)
Supporting Information. TG, DTG and DSC curves of the cured resin (PF-type A) in inert atmosphere. TG, DTG and DSC curves of the cured resin (PF-type A) in oxidizing atmosphere. TG, DTG and DSC curves of the cured resin (PF-type A) in reducing atmosphere. Release profile of the background (region of the 3D plot where no bands are observed throughout the measurement) plotted against increasing temperature. (DOCX 762 kb)


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AGH University of Science and TechnologyAcademic Centre for Materials and NanotechnologyKrakowPoland
  2. 2.AGH University of Science and TechnologyFaculty of Materials Science and CeramicsKrakowPoland
  3. 3.AGH University of Science and Technology Faculty of Foundry EngineeringKrakowPoland

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