Numerical investigation of mixed convection heat transfer behavior of nanofluid in a cavity with different heat transfer areas

  • Shahrouz Yousefzadeh
  • Hamid Rajabi
  • Navid Ghajari
  • Mohammad Mohsen Sarafraz
  • Omid Ali Akbari
  • Marjan GoodarziEmail author


The main purpose of this research is the numerical modeling of laminar mixed convection heat transfer inside an open square cavity with different heat transfer areas. In the considered geometry, cold fluid enters the cavity. At the middle of the cavity, there is a hot isothermal circular heat source. For increasing the heat transfer, solid silver nanoparticles with volume fractions (φ) of 0, 2 and 4% are added to water. Studied Re numbers are 10, 50, 120 and 200. The location of the hot zone changes the temperature distribution in the fluid layers. If the heat transfer area is located in an appropriate location, temperature distribution becomes more uniform. Increasing Re leads to smaller temperature gradients in regions near the hot surface and higher temperature at fluid layers close to the surface. By increasing fluid velocity, backflows do not improve heat transfer but it is able to change the heat transfer mechanism. By decreasing the fluid velocity, the effects of velocity gradients and extension of the velocity boundary layer increase and friction coefficient attains the maximum value.


Open cavity Mixed heat transfer Numerical study Nanofluid Nusselt number (Nu) 

List of symbols


Grashof number


Heat transfer coefficient (Wm−2 K−1)


Entrance height (m)


Specific heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)


Thermal conductivity (Wm−1 K−1)


Nusselt number (dimensionless)


Fluid pressure (Pa)


Gravitational acceleration (m s−2)


Prandtl number (dimensionless)


Reynolds number (dimensionless)


Temperature (K)

(X, Y) = (x/h, y/h)

Cartesian dimensionless coordinates

u, v

Velocity components in x, y directions (m s−1)

Greek symbols


Thermal expansion coefficient (K−1)


Nanoparticles volume fraction


Angle (°)


Dynamic viscosity (Pa s−1)


Dimensionless temperature


Density (kg m−3)


Fluid thermal diffusivity (m2 s−1)


Kinematics viscosity (m2 s−1)

Superscripts and subscripts

bf or f










np or p

Solid nanoparticles



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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahrouz Yousefzadeh
    • 1
  • Hamid Rajabi
    • 2
  • Navid Ghajari
    • 3
  • Mohammad Mohsen Sarafraz
    • 4
  • Omid Ali Akbari
    • 5
  • Marjan Goodarzi
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aligudarz BranchIslamic Azad UniversityAligudarzIran
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Sama Collage, Najafabad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran
  4. 4.School of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  5. 5.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran
  6. 6.Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour SafetyTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

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