A numerical approach on hybrid nanofluid behavior in laminar duct flow with various cross sections

  • Gabriela HuminicEmail author
  • Angel Huminic


In this paper, a three-dimensional analysis is used to study the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in ducts with various cross-sectional areas using GO + Co3O4/water (H2O) hybrid nanofluids. Four types of geometries (flat, elliptical and circular ducts) with the same hydraulic diameter were investigated. All simulations were performed for inlet velocities within the range 0.043–0.347 m s−1. The heat transfer, pressure drop, dimensionless entropy generation and modified dimensionless entropy generation were investigated considering the nanoparticle volume concentrations between 0.10 and 0.20%. The results indicate that the flat duct has higher heat transfer coefficients up to 44% than the circular duct. Additionally, the circular duct has 20% lower pressure drop compared to the flat duct. For the flat duct, the maximum reduction in modified dimensionless entropy generation was 39.59% compared to the circular duct for a concentration of 0.2% GO + Co3O4 hybrid nanoparticles. Finally, the performance evaluation criteria were computed and comparative analysis for all studied geometries was performed. Results indicated that the type of geometry has a significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in ducts than the concentration of hybrid nanoparticles.


Duct flow Laminar flow Heat transfer Pressure drop Entropy generation Hybrid nanofluids 

List of symbols


Cross-sectional area (m)


Surface area (m)


Specific heat at constant pressure (J kg−1 K−1)


Hydraulic diameter (m)


Friction factor


Heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 K−1)


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Length (m)


Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Nusselt number


Pressure drop (Pa)


Temperature difference (K)


Perimeter (m)


Heat transfer rate (W)


Heat flux (W m−2)


Reynolds number


Specific entropy (J kg−1 K−1)


Entropy generation (W K−1)


Temperature (K)


Velocity (m s−1)

Greek symbols


Dimensionless length of the duct


Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)


Density (kg m−3)


Dimensionless parameter


Modified dimensionless entropy generation


Volume concentration of nanoparticles (%)


Dimensionless entropy generation





Base fluid


Hybrid nanofluid











Performance evaluation criteria index



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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentTransilvania University of BrasovBrasovRomania

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