Advertisement

Flow boiling heat transfer analysis of Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofluids in horizontal tube using artificial neural network (ANN)

  • Manish DadhichEmail author
  • Om Shankar Prajapati
  • Nirupam Rohatgi
Article
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

A nanofluid is a suspension of nanometer-sized particles in a base fluid. In the last decade, flow boiling of nanofluid has gained much attention. However, only a few correlations on flow boiling are available. In this paper, an experimental study for HTC (heat transfer coefficient) of water-based TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids flowing in an annulus has been carried out at 1 bar. The volumetric concentration of the nanofluid was varied from 0.05 to 0.20%, and heat flux and the mass flux were varied from 6.25 to 143.2 kW m−2 and 338 to 1014 kg m−2 s−1, respectively. It was observed that HTC for both the nanofluids was greater than that of the base fluid water, and it increased with increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles, the heat flux and the mass flux. The highest HTC was obtained for Al2O3 nanofluid at 0.20% concentration for the heat flux of 143.2 kW m−2 and mass flux of 1014 kg m−2 s−1. It was found that nanofluid made from Al2O3 nanoparticles had better HTC than nanofluid made from TiO2 nanoparticles. The HTC ratios, i.e., the ratio of HTC of the nanofluid to the HTC of the base fluid, also increased with the increase in concentration, heat flux and mass flux. In the later part of the paper, new correlations were developed for predicting HTC for TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids. Finally, an ANN model was developed to predict the heat transfer coefficient. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with ANN predictions.

Keywords

Nanofluids Heat transfer coefficient Mass flux Heat flux Concentration Correlation Artificial neural network 

List of symbols

C

Concentration of nanofluids

Cp

Specific heat at constant pressure (J kg−1 K−1)

dh

The hydraulic diameter of the tube m

F

Two-phase multiplier

h

Boiling heat transfer coefficient (kW m−2 K−1)

hLG

Latent heat of vaporization (J kg−1)

k

Thermal conductivity (Wm−1 K−1)

\(\dot{m}\)

Total mass flux of the liquid and vapor flowing (kg m−2 s−1)

m

Mass of nanoparticle gm

M

Number of independent variables

Nu

Nusselt number

Pr

Prandtl number

\(\Delta p_{\text{sat}}\)

\(\left( {p_{\text{wall}} - p_{\text{sat}} } \right)\) (Pa)

q

Heat flux (kW m−2)

δR

Uncertainties associated with the dependent variables

Re

Reynolds number

R2

Correlation coefficient

S

Nucleate boiling suppression factor

\(\Delta T_{\text{sat}}\)

\(\left( {T_{\text{wall}} - T_{\text{sat}} } \right)\) (K)

x

Vapor quality

Xtt

Martinelli parameter

δXj

Uncertainties associated with the independent variables

Greek symbols

\(\alpha\)

Convective heat transfer coefficient (kW m−2 K−1)

\(\mu\)

Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)

\(\rho\)

Density (kg m−3)

\(\sigma\)

Surface tension (Nm−1)

\(\phi\)

Nanoparticles volume concentration

Subscripts

bf

Base fluid

cb

Convective boiling

FZ

Forster and Zuber

G

Gas phase

j

Specific parameter counter

L

Liquid phase

LG

Liquid–gas phase

nb

Nucleate boiling

np

Nanoparticle

sat

Saturated

tp

Two-phase

Abbreviations

ANN

Artificial neural network

CAD

Computer-aided design

CHF

Critical heat flux (kW m−2)

DAQ

Data acquisition

DC

Direct current (ampere)

DI

Deionized

EPE

Expanded polyethylene

HDD

Hard disk drive

HTC

Heat transfer coefficient (kW m−2 K−1)

MSE

Mean square error

ONB

Onset of nucleate boiling

RAM

Random access memory

SS

Stainless steel

UVM

Ultrasonic vibration machine

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors express their gratitude to Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur and University Teaching Department, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, for their support in carrying out this work.

References

  1. 1.
    Azmi WH, Sharma KV, Sarma PK, Mamat R, Anuar S. Comparison of convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of TiO2 nanofluid flow in a tube with twisted tape inserts. Int J Therm Sci. 2014;81(1):84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou J, et al. Saturated flow boiling heat transfer investigation for nanofluid in minichannel. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2017;85:189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Il Kim T, Jeong YH, Chang SH. An experimental study on CHF enhancement in flow boiling using Al2O3 nano-fluid. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2010;53(5–6):1015–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahn HS, Kim H, Jo HJ, Kang SH, Chang WP, Kim MH. Experimental study of critical heat flux enhancement during forced convective flow boiling of nanofluid on a short heated surface. Int J Multiph Flow. 2010;36(5):375–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kahani M, Zeinali Heris S, Mousavi SM. Comparative study between metal oxide nanopowders on thermal characteristics of nanofluid flow through helical coils. Powder Technol. 2013;246:82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Şendur K, Pınar Mengüç M, Karimzadehkhouei M, Koşar A, Yalcin SE. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in horizontal microtubes under thermally developing flow conditions. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2014;67:37–47.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim SJ, McKrell T, Buongiorno J, Wen Hu L. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of dilute alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanofluids at atmospheric pressure. Nucl Eng Des. 2010;240(5):1186–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Il Kim T, Chang WJ, Chang SH. Flow boiling CHF enhancement using Al2O3 nanofluid and an Al2O3 nanoparticle deposited tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2011;54(9–10):2021–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abedini E, Behzadmehr A, Rajabnia H, Sarvari SMH, Mansouri SH. Experimental investigation and comparison of subcooled flow boiling of TiO2 nanofluid in a vertical and horizontal tube. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci. 2013;227(8):1742–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hasheminia M, Fard MH, Etemad SG, Hasan S. Forced boiling of nanofluids, effects of contact angle and surface wettability. In: 3rd micro and nano flows conference, 2011, no. August, p. 22–24.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prajapati OS, Rohatgi N. Flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by using ZnO-water nanofluids. Sci Technol Nucl Install. 2014;2014:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zeitoun O, Ali M. Nanofluid impingement jet heat transfer. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2012;7:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qi C, Wan Y-L, Li C-Y, Han D-T, Rao Z-H. Experimental and numerical research on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of TiO2-water nanofluids in a corrugated tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2017;115:1072–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abdollahi A, Mohammed HA, Vanaki SM, Osia A, Golbahar Haghighi MR. Fluid flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in microchannel heat sink with V-type inlet/outlet arrangement. Alex Eng J. 2017;56(1):161–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang Y, Su GH. Experimental investigation on nanofluid flow boiling heat transfer in a vertical tube under different pressure conditions. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2016;77:116–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohammed HI, Giddings D, Walker GS. Experimental investigation of nanoparticles concentration, boiler temperature and flow rate on flow boiling of zinc bromide and acetone solution in a rectangular duct. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2019;130:710–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sarafraz MM, Arya H, Saeedi M, Ahmadi D. Flow boiling heat transfer to MgO-therminol 66 heat transfer fluid: experimental assessment and correlation development. Appl Therm Eng. 2018;138(January):552–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moreira TA, do Nascimento FJ, Ribatski G. An investigation of the effect of nanoparticle composition and dimension on the heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of aqueous nanofluids in small diameter channels (1.1 mm). Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2017;89(July):72–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kamel MS, Lezsovits F, Hussein AK. Experimental studies of flow boiling heat transfer by using nanofluids. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019;2:123.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sarafraz MM, Hormozi F. Scale formation and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of CuO-water nanofluid inside the vertical annulus. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2014;52:205–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rana KB, Agrawal GD, Mathur J, Puli U. Measurement of void fraction in flow boiling of ZnO-water nanofluids using image processing technique. Nucl Eng Des. 2014;270:217–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Edel Z, Mukherjee A. Flow boiling dynamics of water and nanofluids in a single microchannel at different heat fluxes. J Heat Transf. 2014;137(1):011501 (1–8).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moreira TA, do Nascimento FJ, Ribatski G. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of DI-water/SiO2 nanofluid inside a 1.1 mm round microchannel. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on nanochannels, microchannels, and minichannels, 2015, July, p. 1–6.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duursma G, Wang Y, Harmand S, Sefiane K, Dehaene A. Flow and heat transfer of single-and two-phase boiling of nanofluids in microchannels. Heat Transf Eng. 2014;36(14–15):1252–65.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu L, Xu J. Nanofluid stabilizes and enhances convective boiling heat transfer in a single microchannel. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2012;55(21–22):5673–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chehade AA, Gualous HL, Le Masson S, Fardoun F, Besq A. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013;8(1):1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sarafraz MM, Hormozi F. Forced convective and nucleate flow boiling heat transfer to alumina nanofluids. Period Polytech Chem Eng. 2014;58(1):37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paul G, Das PK, Manna I. Assessment of the process of boiling heat transfer during rewetting of a vertical tube bottom flooded by alumina nanofluid. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2016;94:390–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen JC. Correlation for boiling heat transfer to saturated fluids in convective flow. Ind Eng Chem Des Dev. 1966;5(3):322–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hussein AM, Sharma KV, Bakar RA, Kadirgama K. The effect of nanofluid volume concentration on heat transfer and friction factor inside a horizontal tube. J Nanomater. 2013;2013:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moffat RJ. Describing the uncertainties in experimental results. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 1988;1(1):3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jalili-kharaajoo M, Araabi BN. Neural network based predictive control of a heat exchanger non linear process. J Electr Electron Eng. 2004;4(2):1219–26.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kamble LV, Pangavhane DR, Singh TP. Artificial neural network based prediction of heat transfer from horizontal tube bundles immersed in gas-solid fluidized bed of large particles. J Heat Transf. 2014;137(1):012901 (1–9).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Teaching DepartmentRajasthan Technical UniversityKotaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMalaviya National Institute of TechnologyJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations