Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 138, Issue 3, pp 2103–2122 | Cite as

Physical and thermophysical properties of a commercial Ni–Ti shape memory alloy strip

  • G. Florian
  • Augusta Raluca Gabor
  • C. A. Nicolae
  • A. RotaruEmail author
  • Cornelia A. Marinescu
  • Gabriela Iacobescu
  • N. Stănică
  • Sonia Degeratu
  • Oana Gîngu
  • P. Rotaru


Some physical properties like the thermal, thermomechanical, calorimetric, magnetic, and adhesive properties of a commercial shape memory alloy (SMA) with rectangular geometry were studied. Depending on the applied forces, there were identified range of elasticity, the elasticity–viscoelasticity coexistence domain, and the domain in which a maximum force of 18 N is applied, for the SMA strip. The controlled force module, in the tension mode, was used for the determination of the SMA strip elongation at application of the stretching forces from 0 to 13 N, at 30 °C, maintaining each static force value for 3 min. By employing the multi-frequency strain–stress modulus in the tension mode, DMA cyclic heating–cooling measurements were carried out. The measured dynamic mechanical properties for SMA strip were Storage Modulus, Loss Modulus, tanδ, and Stiffness, both at heating and cooling. Thus, the characteristic temperatures of the phase transitions (As, Af, Ms, Mf), of SMA strip were identified. Also, the values of the elasticity modulus (Young’s Modulus) of the SMA strip were calculated at 30 °C. With the DSC Q2000 device, using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry method, a multi-step temperature variation program was applied to the rectangular strip in two stages (heating–cooling). Through the interpretation of heat fluxes (reversible, nonreversible, and total), the phase transitions in the formation of martensite, austenite, and also of the rhombohedral phase (R phase) and moreover enabled for the R phase identification, thermomechanical analysis confirmed the results obtained by classical DSC method. The adherence of some commercial azoic dyes on the rectangular SMA strip, as well as the modification of the surface roughness of the strip after the deposition of the dye, was also studied. By magnetic measurements, it was established that the SMA strip had magnetic properties at room temperature, in which magnetization is the sum of a superparamagnetic contribution and a paramagnetic term, linear in the intensity of the magnetizing magnetic field.


Nitinol Dynamic mechanical analysis Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry DSC Thermomechanical analysis Atomic force microscopy Magnetism 



  1. 1.
    Berzinsa DW, Roberts HW. Phase transformation changes in thermocycled nickel–titanium orthodontic wires. Dent Mater. 2010;26:666–74.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buehler WJ, Wiley RC. Nickel-base alloys. United States Patent 3,174,851 (1965)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buehler WJ, Wiley RC. TiNi-ductile intermetallic compound. Am Soc Met Trans Q. 1962;55:269–76.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andreasen GF, Hilleman TB. An evaluation of 55 cobalt substituted Nitinol wire for use in orthodontics. J Am Dent Assoc. 1971;82:1373–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mavroidis C. Development of advanced acuatorsusing shape memory alloys and electrorheological fluids. J Res Nondestr Eval. 2002;14:1–32.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Waram TC. Acuator design using shape memory alloys. 1st ed. Hamilton: Ontario Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andreasen GF, Morrow RE. Laboratory and clinical analyses of nitinol wire: an evaluation of 55 cobalt substituted nitinol wire for use in orthodontics. Am J Orthod. 1978;73:142–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Degeratu S, Rotaru P, Manolea G, Manolea HO, Rotaru A. Thermal characteristics of Ni–Ti SMA (shape memory alloy) actuators. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009;97:695–700.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Degeratu S, Rotaru P, Rizescu S, Bı̂zdoacă NG. Thermal study of a shape memory alloy (SMA) spring actuator designed to insure the motion of a barrier structure. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;111:1255–62.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Degeratu S, Bîzdoacă N. Shape memory alloys: fundamentals, design and applications. Craiova: Universitaria Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Songa G, Ma N, Li HN. Applications of shape memory alloys in civil structures. Eng Struct. 2006;28:1266–74.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu MH, Schetky LM, Industrial applications for shape memory alloys. In: Proceedings of the international conference on shape memory and superelastic technologies, Pacific Grove, California; 2000. p. 171–182.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mandru D, Lungu I, Noveanu S, Tatar O. Aapplications of shape memory alloy actuators in biomedical engineering. Ann Oradea Univ. 2008; VII: 922–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anson T. Shape memory alloys—medical applications. Mater World. 1999;7:745–7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Machado LG, Savi MA. Medical applications of shape memory alloys. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2003;36:683–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luo J, Ye W, Ma X, Bobanga JO, Lewandowski JJ. The evolution and effects of second phase particles during hot extrusion and re-extrusion of a NiTi shape memory alloy. J Alloys Comp 2018;735:1145–51.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qin Q, Peng H, Fan Q, Zhang L, Wen Y. Effect of second phase precipitation on martensitic transformation and hardness in highly Ni-rich NiTi alloys. J. Alloys Comp. 2018;739:873–81.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mor M. Review on shape memory materials. In MATEC web of conferences vol.53, EDP Sciences, 01061; 2016. p. 1–5.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liaw Y-C, Su Y-YM, Lai Y-L, Lee S-Y. Stiffness and frictional resistance of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire with low-stress hysteresis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;131:578.e12-8.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iijima M, Brantley WA, Guo WH, Clark WAT, Yuasa T, Mizoguchi I. X-ray diffraction study of low-temperature phase transformations in nickel–titanium orthodontic wires. Dent Mater. 2008;24:1454–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang XB, Verlinden B, van Humbeeck J. R-phase transformation in NiTi alloys. Mater Sci Technol. 2014;30:1517–29.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang X, Li C, Verlinden B, van Humbeeck J. Effect of grain size on aging microstructure as reflected in the transformation behaviour of a low-temperature aged Ti–50.8 at.% Ni alloy. Scr Mater. 2013;69:545–8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brantley WA. Orthodontic wires. In: Orthodontic materials: scientific and clinical aspects. Thieme, Stuttgart, 2001.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duerig TW, Melton KN, Stockel D, Wayman CM, editors. Engineering aspects of shape memory alloys. London: Butter-worth-Heinemann; 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu H, Müller I. Effects of mechanical vibration, heat treatment and ternary addition on the hysteresis in shape memory alloys. J Mater Sci. 1991;26:1473–7.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bradley TG, Brantley WA, Culbertson BM. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of superelastic and nonsuperelastic nickel–titanium orthodontic wires. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1996;109:589–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Degeratu S, Rizescu S, Alboteanu L, Caramida C, Rotaru P, Boncea I, Iancu C. Using a shape memory alloy spring actuator to increase the performance of solar tracking system. Annals of the University of Craiova, Electrical Engineering series, No. 38, 2014; p 116–21.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    Bashaiwoldu AB, Podczeck F, Newton JM. Application of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to determine the mechanical properties of pellets. Int J Pharm. 2004;269:329–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Menard KP. Dynamic mechanical analysis. New York: CRC Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brostow W, Menard KP, White JB. Application of dynamic mechanical analysis techniques to bismuth telluride based thermoelectric materials. e-Polym. 2004;45:1–13.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dong S, Gauvin R. Application of dynamic mechanical analysis for the study of the interfacial region in carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials. Polym Compos. 1993;14:414–20.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Florian G, Gabor AR, Nicolae CA, Iacobescu G, Stănică N, Mărăşescu P, Petrişor I, Leulescu M, Degeratu S, Gîngu O, Rotaru P. Physical properties (thermal, thermomechanical, magnetic, and adhesive) of some smart orthodontic wires. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;134:189–208.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Meyers MA, Chawla KK. Mechanical behaviour of materials. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall; 1999.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Da Silva NJ, Grassi END, De Araujo CJ. Dynamic properties of NiTi shape memory alloy and classic structural materials: a comparative analysis. Mater Sci Forum. 2010;643:37–41.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Zanaboni E. One way and two way-shape memory effect: thermomechanical characterization of Ni–Ti wires. PhD Thesis, 2008, University of Pavia, Faculty of Engineering, Pavia.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ahlers M. The martensitic transformation. Rev Mater. 2004;9(3):169–83.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Porter DA, Easterling KE. Phase transformations in metals and alloys. New York: Chapman & Hall; 1992. p. 172.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brantley WA, Jijima M, Grentzer TH. Temperature-modulated DSC study of phase transformations in nickel–titanium orthodontic wires. Termochim Acta. 2002;392–393:329–37.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Razali MF, Mahmud AS, Mokhtar N. Force delivery of NiTi orthodontic arch wire at different magnitude of deflections and temperatures: a finite element study. J Mec Behav Biomed Mat. 2018;77:234–41.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nespoli A, Villa E, Bergo L, Rizzacasa A, Passaretti F. DSC and three-point bending test for the study of the thermo-mechanical history of NiTi and NiTi-based orthodontic archwires. J Thermal Anal Calorim. 2015;120(2):1129–38.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wang X, Li C, Verlinden B, van Humbeeck J. Effect of grain size on aging microstructure as reflected in the transformation behaviour of a low-temperature aged Ti–50.8 at.% Ni alloy. Scr Mater. 2013;69:545–8.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ren C-C, Bai Y-X, Wang H-M, Zheng Y-F, Li S. Phase transformation analysis of varied nickel-titanium orthodontic wires. Chin Med J. 2008;12:2060–4.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Golmakani MH, Vahdati Khaki J, Babakhani A. Formation mechanism of Fe–Mo master alloy by aluminothermic reduction of MoS2–Fe2O3 in the presence of lime. J Min Metall Sect B-Metall. 2018;54(2B):233–41.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Voncina M, Kores S, Ernecl M, Medved J. The role of Zr and T6 heat treatment on microstructure evolution and hardness of AlSi9Cu3(Fe) diecasting alloy. J Min Metall Sect B-Metall. 2017;53(3B):423–8.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Holjevac Grgurić T, Manasijević D, Kožuh S, Ivanić I, Anžel I, Kosec B, Bizjak M, Govorčin Bajsic E, Balanovic L, Gojic M. The effect of the processing parameters on the martensitic transformation of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloy. J Alloys Comp. 2018;765:664–76.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Holjevac Grgurić T, Manasijević D, Kožuh S, Ivanić I, Balanović L, Anžel I, Kosec B, Bizjak M, Knežević M, Gojić M. Phase transformation and microstructure study of the as-cast Cu-rich Cu–Al–Mn ternary alloys. J Min Metall Sect B-Metall. 2017;53(3B):413–22.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tong Y, Gu H, James RD, Qi W, Shuitcev AV, Li L. Novel TiNiCuNb shape memory alloys with excellent thermal cycling stability. J Alloys Comp. 2019;782:343–7.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Najafi M, Mirzadeh H, Alibeyki M. Tempering of deformed and as-quenched martensite in structural steel. J Min Metall Sect B-Metall. 2019;55(1B):95–9.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yates SJ, Kalamkarov AL. Experimental study of helical shape memory alloy actuators: effects of design and operating parameters on thermal transients and stroke. Metals. 2013;3:123–49.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Menczel JD, Prime RB. Thermal analysis of polymers, Fundamentals and applications. New Jersey: Wiley; 2009.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yamauchi K, Ohkata I, Tsuchiya K, Miyazaki S. Shape memory and superelastic alloys, technologies and applications. Oxford: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2011.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hedvig P. Quantitative thermomechanical analysis of polyvinylchloride compounds. Croat Chem Acta. 1987;60:21–51.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bauer B, Jones DJ, Rozière J, Tchicaya L, Alberti G, Casciola M, Massinelli L, Peraio A, Besse S, Ramunni E. J New Mat Electrochem Syst. 2000;3:93–8.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific Opinion on the appropriateness of the food azo-colours Tartrazine (E 102), Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110), Carmoisine (E122), Amaranth (E 123), Ponceau 4R (E 124), Allura Red AC (E129), Brilliant Black BN (E 151), Brown FK (E 154), Brown HT (E 155) and Litholrubine BK (E 180) for inclusion in the list of food ingredients set up in Annex IIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC. EFSA J. 2010;8(10):1778.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Tartrazine (E102), on request from the European Commission. EFSA J. 2009;7(11):1331.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110) as a food additive, on request from the European Commission. EFSA J. 2009;7(11):1330.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Azorubine/Carmoisine (E 122) as a food additive, on request from the European Commission. EFSA J. 2009;7(11):1332.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Ponceau 4R (E 124) as a food additive, on request from the European Commission. EFSA J. 2009;7(11):1328.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Brown HT (E 155) as a food additive. EFSA J. 2010;8(3):1536.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Samide A, Iacobescu GE, Tutunaru B, Tigae C. Electrochemical and AFM study of inhibitory properties of thin film formed by tartrazine food additive on 304L stainless steel in saline solution. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2017;12:2088–101.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Leulescu M, Rotaru A, Pălărie I, Moanţă A, Cioatera N, Popescu M, Morîntale E, Bubulică E, Florian G, Hărăbor A, Rotaru P. Tartrazine: physical and biophysical properties of the most widely employed artificial yellow food-colouring azo dye. J Thermal Anal Calorim. 2019;128(1):89–105.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Leulescu M, Pălărie I, Moanţă A, Cioatera N, Popescu M, Morîntale E, Văruţ MC, Rotaru P. Brown HT. Physical, thermal and biophysical properties of the food azo dye. J Thermal Anal Calorim. 2019;136(3):1249–1268.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rotaru A, Dumitru M. Thermal behaviour of CODA azoic dye liquid crystal and nanostructuring by drop cast and spin coating techniques. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;127:21–32.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rotaru A, Moanta A, Constantinescu C, Dumitru M, Manolea HO, Andrei A, Dinescu M. Thermokinetic study of CODA azoic liquid crystal and thin films deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;128:89–105.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Desjonqueres MC, Spanjaard D. Concepts in physics surface. Berlin: Springer; 1996.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Krishnan M, Seema S, Tiwari B, Sharma HS, Londhe S, Arora V. Surface characterization of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires. Med J Armed Forces India. 2015;71:S340–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jedynak R. Approximation of the inverse Langevin function revisited. Rheol Acta. 2015;54:29–39.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kröger M. Simple, admissible, and accurate approximants of the inverse Langevin and Brillouin functions, relevant for strong polymer deformations and flows. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech. 2015;223:77–87.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jedynak R. New facts concerning the approximation of the inverse Langevin function. J Nonnewton Fluid Mech. 2017;249:8–25.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jedynak R. A comprehensive study of the mathematical methods used to approximate the inverse Langevin function. Math Mech Solids. 2018;1–25. Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Florian
    • 1
  • Augusta Raluca Gabor
    • 2
  • C. A. Nicolae
    • 2
  • A. Rotaru
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  • Cornelia A. Marinescu
    • 6
  • Gabriela Iacobescu
    • 1
  • N. Stănică
    • 6
  • Sonia Degeratu
    • 7
  • Oana Gîngu
    • 8
  • P. Rotaru
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of CraiovaCraiovaRomania
  2. 2.National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and PetrochemistryBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Department of Horticulture and Food Science, Faculty of HorticultureUniversity of CraiovaCraiovaRomania
  4. 4.Department of LasersINFLPR–National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation PhysicsBucharestRomania
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Biology and ChemistryTiraspol State UniversityChisinauRepublic of Moldova
  6. 6.Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of Romanian AcademyBucharestRomania
  7. 7.Department of Electromechanics, Environment and Applied InformaticsUniversity of CraiovaCraiovaRomania
  8. 8.Department of IMSTUniversity of CraiovaDrobeta-Turnu SeverinRomania

Personalised recommendations