Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 138, Issue 6, pp 4155–4165 | Cite as

Insights into the hydration of Portland cement under hydrothermal curing

  • Martin T. PalouEmail author
  • Eva Kuzielová
  • Matúš Žemlička
  • Jakub Tkácz
  • Jiří Másilko


The combined effect of temperature and vapor pressure on hydration reactions of three different types of Portland cements was studied using a laboratory autoclave. Oil well Portland cement Class G high sulfate resistant (HSR), Dyckerhoff Portland cement and Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R Extra were cured under hydrothermal conditions (165 °C–0.5 MPa and 220 °C–2.0 MPa) up to 7 days. In parallel, hydration reactions at laboratory conditions (25 °C–0.1 MPa) of these samples were also studied. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements (TG/DTA) were mostly used to characterize the course of hydration under different curing conditions. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to identify the hydration products and to characterize the coupled effect of temperature and vapor pressure on microstructure and pore structure development. Also, mechanical properties were correlated with pore structure and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Different hydrothermal curing regimes resulted in sequential and overlapped hydration reactions with products including portlandite, ettringite, poorly crystalline C–S–H, hydrogarnet (C–A–S–H), α-C2SH, jaffeite (C6S2H3), scawtite (C7S6\({\bar{\text{C}}}\)H2) and reinhardbraunsite (C5S2H). Calcium silicate hydrate underwent systematic changes starting with the transformation of C–S–H gel formed during the non-equilibrium phases or under low-pressure hydrothermal conditions to α-C2SH, jaffeite and reinhardbraunsite with increasing hydrothermal temperatures. The gradual transition of amorphous C–S–H phases to α-C2SH, C6S2H3, C7S6\({\bar{\text{C}}}\)H2 and C5S2H has caused the deterioration of pore structure with corollaries of the increase in permeability and the decrease in mechanical properties. Moreover, different temperature peaks from 600 to 1000 °C denoting thermal decomposition of different calcium carbonate species were depicted at DTG curves. These are ranged from low to well-crystallized CaCO3.


Dyckerhoff cement Oil well Portland cement Class G HSR Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R Extra Hydrothermal curing Hydration reaction and products Pore structure Microstructure 

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This work was supported by courtesy of APVV-15-0631, Slovak Grant Agency VEGA No. 2/0097/17 and Czech Science Foundation GA19-16646S. Authors express their thankful to V4-Kórea Joint Research Program on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering under the auspices of Slovak Academy of Sciences.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin T. Palou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Eva Kuzielová
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matúš Žemlička
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jakub Tkácz
    • 3
  • Jiří Másilko
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Construction and ArchitectureSlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemical and Food TechnologySlovak University of TechnologyBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Materials Research Centre, Faculty of ChemistryBrno University of TechnologyBrnoCzech Republic

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