A semi-batch reactor was used to carry out the pyrolysis of Ageratum conyzoides. The outcome of pyrolysis parameters vis temperature (350–600 °C); heating rate (25–100 °C min−1) and sweeping gas (N2) flow rate (0.1–0.5 L min−1) were observed on the product yield. The fixed particle size of 0.425 mm was maintained throughout the pyrolysis process. The maximum pyrolytic-oil yield of 37.55 mass% was achieved at a temperature of 525 °C under a constant heating rate and sweeping gas flow rate of 75 °C min−1 and 0.2 L min−1. Biomass, biochar, pyrolytic-oil and pyrolysis–gas were characterized through CHNS and O, FT-IR, TG and DTG, SEM–EDX, BET, XRD, 1H-NMR and GC–MS analysers. The A. conyzoides pyrolytic-oil and biochar has an empirical formula of CH1.32O0.82 and CH0.82O0.44 and a high heating value of 17.79 MJ kg−1 and 22.93 MJ kg−1. Presence of lower and higher hydrocarbon compounds in pyrolytic-oil makes it a suitable feedstock for the production of various chemicals. High alkalinity and carbonaceous nature of biochar make it suitable for the modification of soil or can be utilized as a solid fuel. The pyrolysis–gas has a gross calorific value of 5.32 MJ m−3 and can be utilized as an alternative gaseous energy source.
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Bhattacharjee, N., Biswas, A.B. Pyrolysis of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed). J Therm Anal Calorim 139, 1515–1536 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08437-9
- Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) biomass
- Pyrolysis–gas and biochar