Adrenaline system: another rare case of conglomerate with partial solid solutions

  • Veronica Ianno’
  • Philippe Négrier
  • Philippe EspeauEmail author


Adrenaline, in its enantiomeric form l-, is the drug of choice for the treatment of cardiac arrest or certain serious shock conditions. However, although its crystal structure is known, there are no thermodynamic data on this molecule. Regarding the racemic form of this molecule, the latter has never been characterized either from a thermodynamic or crystallographic point of view. The melting characteristics, temperature and enthalpy of both the enantiomer and the racemate of adrenaline were determined using the plateau values obtained at high DSC scan rates. The refinement of the RX diffraction pattern of the racemate revealed that this equimolar mixture was a conglomerate with partial solid solutions. This conclusion was supported by the phase diagram between the two enantiomers established from the l-enantiomer and the racemate where the results presented in this paper show that a lower solid-state miscibility exists between the two enantiomers. The equimolar compound is therefore part of the very limited series of conglomerate with partial miscibility.

Graphical abstract


Adrenaline Binary phase diagram Conglomerate Solid solution Thermal analysis X-ray powder diffraction 



The authors thank Ms. K. Debbasch for her advice and language improvements on the manuscript.

Author’s contribution

The manuscript was written through contributions of all authors. All authors have given approval to the final version of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical and Biological Technologies for Health (UTCBS), CNRS UMR8258, INSERM U1022, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Chimie ParisTechPSL Research University, School of PharmacyParisFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d’Aquitaine, UMR CNRS 5798Université de BordeauxTalence CedexFrance

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