Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 138, Issue 5, pp 3455–3484 | Cite as

A review on the application of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to petroleum products

Characterization and kinetic study
  • Milad Ahmadi KhoshooeiEmail author
  • Farhad Fazlollahi
  • Yadollah Maham


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) can be used to obtain a variety of thermodynamic or kinetic data of petroleum products. The application of DSC to petroleum fluids includes characterization of crude oils, studying bulk and confined space phase behavior of hydrocarbons, and evaluating the glass transition in crude oils. In addition, the kinetic data of the pyrolysis, combustion, and oxidation of crude oils can be obtained using DSC. In this work, a comprehensive review of the application of DSC to petroleum-based products is provided that integrates different approaches in the literature in order to provide a constructive platform for future studies. Also, the limitations of the method are elaborated in detail, and recommendations are provided to appropriately optimize the accuracy and applicability of DSC to study petroleum products. The impact of different operating parameters in using DSC including the thermal scanning rate, pressure, modulating temperature program, and analysis method is systematically discussed. Also, the effect of neglecting thermal radiation in DSC experiments is highlighted to ensure that future studies consider this important phenomenon once analyzing the raw data. As well, the advantage of coupling DSC with other analytical techniques is carefully reviewed to underline that precious information that can be obtained once DSC is integrated with other methods. This comprehensive review expresses that DSC has different themes of applications to the research and development in petroleum industry. Due to its simplicity, precious and rapid data collection features, DSC is one of the primary methods for characterizing petroleum fluids. Yet, further advancements both in the equipment design and in data analysis is urged to improve the applicability of DSC to crude oils and their fractions.


DSC Oil characterization Glass transition Combustion Pyrolysis Oil shale 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


  1. 1.
    Giavarini C, Pochetti F. Characterization of petroleum products by DSC analysis. J Therm Anal. 1973;5:83–94.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harvey J-P, Saadatkhah N, Dumont-Vandewinkel G, Ackermann SLG, Patience GS. Experimental methods in chemical engineering: differential scanning calorimetry—DSC. Can J Chem Eng. 2018;96:2518–25.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mothé MG, Perin M, Mothé CG. Comparative thermal study of heavy crude oils by DSC. Pet Sci Technol. 2016;34:314–20.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kök MV, Pamir MR. Pyrolysis and combustion studies of fossil fuels by thermal analysis methods. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 1995;35:145–56.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kök M. Thermal analysis applications in fossil fuel science. Literature survey. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2002;68:1061–77.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kök M. Recent developments in the application of thermal analysis techniques in fossil fuels. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;91:763–73.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wesołowski M. Thermal analysis of petroleum products. Thermochim Acta. 1981;46:21–45.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rustschev DD. Application of thermal analysis for investigating liquid fuels, petroleum- and coke-chemical products. Thermochim Acta. 1990;168:261–71.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Masson J-F, Bundalo-Perc S. Calculation of smoothing factors for the comparison of DSC results. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2007;90:639–43.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmadi Khoshooei M, Fazlollahi F, Maham Y, Hassan A, Pereira-Almao P. A review on the application of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to petroleum products. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2019. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duyck C, Miekeley N, Porto da Silveira CL, Szatmari P. Trace element determination in crude oil and its fractions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using ultrasonic nebulization of toluene solutions. Spectrochim Acta Part B At Spectrosc. 2002;57:1979–90.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Espinat D, Ravey JC, Guille V, Lambard J, Zemb T, Cotton JP. Colloidal macrostructure of crude oil studied by neutron and X-ray small angle scattering techniques. Le J Phys IV. 1993;3:C8–181.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Subramanian S, Simon S, Sjöblom J. Asphaltene precipitation models: a review. J Dispers Sci Technol. 2016;37:1027–49.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kutcherov V, Lundin A, Ross RG, Anisimov M, Chernoutsan A. Glass transition in viscous crude oils under pressure. Int J Thermophys. 1994;15:165–76.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Létoffé JM, Claudy P, Garcin M, Volle JL. Evaluation of crystallized fractions of crude oils by differential scanning calorimetry: correlation with gas chromatography. Fuel. 1995;74:92–5.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kutcherov V, Chernoutsan A, Brazhkin V. Crystallization and glass transition in crude oils and their fractions at atmospheric and high pressures. J Mol Liq. 2017;241:428–34.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kutcherov V, Chernoutsan A. Crystallization and glass transition in crude oils and their fractions at high pressure. Int J Thermophys. 2006;27:474–85.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Claudy P, Létoffé J-M, Chagué B, Orrit J. Crude oils and their distillates: characterization by differential scanning calorimetry. Fuel. 1988;67:58–61.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baltzer Hansen A, Larsen E, Batsberg Pedersen W, Nielsen AB, Roenningsen HP. Wax precipitation from North Sea crude oils. 3. Precipitation and dissolution of wax studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Energy Fuels. 1991;5:914–23.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Masson J-F, Polomark GM. Bitumen microstructure by modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Thermochim Acta. 2001;374:105–14.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Masson J-F, Polomark GM, Bundalo-Perc S, Collins P. Melting and glass transitions in paraffinic and naphthenic oils. Thermochim Acta. 2006;440:132–40.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chambrion P, Bertau R, Ehrburger P. Characterization of bitumen by differential scanning calorimetry. Fuel. 1996;75:144–8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frolov IN, Firsin AA. Role of paraffinic hydrocarbons in the formation of the dispersed structure of petroleum asphalt. Chem Technol Fuels Oils. 2016;52:600–5.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Merusi F, Filippi S, Polacco G. Effect of synthetic and functionalized waxes on bituminous binders: from the glassy state to the intermediate viscoelastic domain. Constr Build Mater. 2017;136:541–55.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jackle J. Models of the glass transition. Rep Prog Phys. 1986;49:171.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kriz P, Stastna J, Zanzotto L. Glass transition and phase stability in asphalt binders. Road Mater Pavement Des. 2008;9:37–65.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yasar M, Akmaz S, Ali Gurkaynak M. Investigation of glass transition temperatures of Turkish asphaltenes. Fuel. 2007;86:1737–48.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Claudy P, Létoffé J-M, Chagué B, Orrit J. Crude oils and their distillates: characterization by differential scanning calorimetry. Fuel. 1988;67:58–61.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Noel F. Thermal analysis of lubricating oils. Thermochim Acta. 1972;4:377–92.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gill PS, Sauerbrunn SR, Reading M. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry. J Therm Anal. 1993;40:931–9.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reading M, Elliott D, Hill VL. A new approach to the calorimetric investigation of physical and chemical transitions. J Therm Anal. 1993;40:949–55.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boller A, Schick C, Wunderlich B. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry in the glass transition region. Thermochim Acta. 1995;266:97–111.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jiménez-Mateos JM, Quintero LC, Rial C. Characterization of petroleum bitumens and their fractions by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Fuel. 1996;75:1691–700.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bair H. Glass transition measurements by DSC. In: Seyler RJ, editor. Assignment of the glass transition. West Conshohocken: ASTM International; 1994. p. 50–74.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flocke HA. Ein Beitrag zum mechanischen Relaxationsverhalten von Polyäthylen, Polypropylen, Gemischen aus diesen und Mischpolymerisaten aus Propylen und äthylen. Kolloid-Zeitschrift und Zeitschrift für Polym. 1962;180:118–26.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kucherov VG, Chernoutsan AI. Reciprocal influence of crystallization and vitrification processes in complex hydrocarbon systems. Chem Technol Fuels Oils. 2006;42:206–10.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kucherov VG, Chernoutsan AI. Characteristics of crystallization and the glass transition of Kumkol’ crude oil at high pressures. Chem Technol Fuels Oils. 2001;37:401–6.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cantor AS. Glass transition temperatures of hydrocarbon blends: adhesives measured by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. J Appl Polym Sci. 2000;77:826–32.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Levin M, Karlsson C. The effect of molecular composition of naphthenic mineral oil on the glass transition temperature. Thermochim Acta. 2010;499:171–3.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kutcherov V. Glass transition in crude oils under pressure. Int J Thermophys. 2006;27:467–73.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shaw JM, Zou X. Phase behavior of heavy oils. In: Mullins OC, Sheu EY, Hammami A, Marshall AG, editors. Asphaltenes, heavy oils, and petroleomics. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 489–510.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Plato C, Glasgow AR. Differential scanning calorimetry as a general method for determining the purity and heat of fusion of high-purity organic chemicals. Application to 95 compounds. Anal Chem. 1969;41:330–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fulem M, Becerra M, Hasan MDA, Zhao B, Shaw JM. Phase behaviour of Maya crude oil based on calorimetry and rheometry. Fluid Phase Equilib. 2008;272:32–41.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bazyleva A, Fulem M, Becerra M, Zhao B, Shaw JM. Phase behavior of Athabasca Bitumen. J Chem Eng Data. 2011;56:3242–53.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Laštovka V, Fulem M, Becerra M, Shaw JM. A similarity variable for estimating the heat capacity of solid organic compounds: Part II. Application: heat capacity calculation for ill-defined organic solids. Fluid Phase Equilib. 2008;268:134–41.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bagheri SR, Bazyleva A, Gray MR, McCaffrey WC, Shaw JM. Observation of liquid crystals in heavy petroleum fractions. Energy Fuels. 2010;24:4327–32.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Abivin P, Taylor SD, Freed D. Thermal behavior and viscoelasticity of heavy oils. Energy Fuels. 2012;26:3448–61.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bazyleva A, Becerra M, Stratiychuk-Dear D, Shaw JM. Phase behavior of Safaniya vacuum residue. Fluid Phase Equilib. 2014;380:28–38.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aguiar JIS, Mansur CRE. Study of the interaction between asphaltenes and resins by microcalorimetry and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. Fuel. 2015;140:462–9.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aguiar JIS, Garreto MSE, González G, Lucas EF, Mansur CRE. Microcalorimetry as a new technique for experimental study of solubility parameters of crude oil and asphaltenes. Energy Fuels. 2014;28:409–16.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Luo S, Lutkenhaus JL, Nasrabadi H. Experimental study of onfinement effect on hydrocarbon phase behavior in nano-scale porous media using differential scanning calorimetry. In: SPE Annual technical conference exhibition. Huoston, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers; September 2015; p. 1–16.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Luo S, Lutkenhaus JL, Nasrabadi H. Use of differential scanning calorimetry to study phase behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures in nano-scale porous media. J Pet Sci Eng. 2018;163:731–8.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Luo S, Nasrabadi H, Lutkenhaus JL. Effect of confinement on the bubble points of hydrocarbons in nanoporous media. AIChE J. 2016;62:1772–80.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Luo S, Lutkenhaus JL, Nasrabadi H. Confinement-induced supercriticality and phase equilibria of hydrocarbons in nanopores. Langmuir. 2016;32:11506–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kok MV. Characterization of medium and heavy crude oils using thermal analysis techniques. Fuel Process Technol. 2011;92:1026–31.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Castro LV, Vazquez F. Fractionation and characterization of Mexican crude oils. Energy Fuels. 2009;23:1603–9.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gobrecht H, Hamann K, Willers G. Complex plane analysis of heat capacity of polymers in the glass transition region. J Phys E: Sci Inst. 1971;4:21.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tran KQ. Reversing and non-reversing phase transitions in Athabasca bitumen asphaltenes. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 2009.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Clausse D, Gomez F, Pezron I, Komunjer L, Dalmazzone C. Morphology characterization of emulsions by differential scanning calorimetry. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2005;117:59–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Clausse D. Differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and emulsions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;101:1071–7.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Clausse D, Gomez F, Dalmazzone C, Noik C. A method for the characterization of emulsions, thermogranulometry: application to water-in-crude oil emulsion. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2005;287:694–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Díaz-Ponce JA, Flores EA, Lopez-Ortega A, Hernández-Cortez JG, Estrada A, Castro LV, Vazquez F. Differential scanning calorimetry characterization of water-in-oil emulsions from Mexican crude oils. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;102:899–906.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dalmazzone C, Noïk C, Glénat P, Dang H-M. Development of a methodology for the optimization of dehydration of extraheavy-oil emulsions. In: SPE international symposium on oilfield chemistry. Woodlands, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers; April 2009.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Butler RM. Steam-assisted gravity drainage: concept, development, performance and future. J Can Pet Technol. 1994;33:44–50.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Balsamo V, Nguyen D, Phan J. Non-conventional techniques to characterize complex SAGD emulsions and dilution effects on emulsion stabilization. J Pet Sci Eng. 2014;122:331–45.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Balsamo V, Phan J, Nguyen D. Effect of Diluents on interfacial properties and SAGD emulsion stability: II. Differential scanning calorimetry and light scattering methods. In: SPE heavy oil conference calgary. Alberta: Society of Petroleum Engineers; June 2013; p. 1–16.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Piroozian A, Hemmati M, Ismail I, Manan MA, Bayat AE, Mohsin R. Effect of emulsified water on the wax appearance temperature of water-in-waxy-crude-oil emulsions. Thermochim Acta. 2016;637:132–42.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dalmazzone C, Noïk C, Clausse D. Application of DSC for emulsified system characterization. Oil Gas Sci Technol. 2009;64:543–55.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Khan MN, Warrier P, Peters CJ, Koh CA. Review of vapor-liquid equilibria of gas hydrate formers and phase equilibria of hydrates. J Nat Gas Sci Eng. 2016;35:1388–404.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Le Parlouër P, Dalmazzone C, Herzhaft B, Rousseau L, Mathonat C. Characterisation of gas hydrates formation using a new high pressure Micro-DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004;78:165–72.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dalmazzone C, Herzhaft B, Rousseau L, Le Parlouer P, Dalmazzone D. Prediction of gas hydrates formation with DSC technique. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibition. Denver, Colorado: Society of Petroleum Engineers; October 2003.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dalmazzone D, Hamed N, Dalmazzone C, Rousseau L. Application of high pressure DSC to the kinetics of formation of methane hydrate inwater-in-oilemulsion. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2006;85:361–8.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Semenov ME, Manakov AY, Shitz EY, Stoporev AS, Altunina LK, Strelets LA, et al. DSC and thermal imaging studies of methane hydrate formation and dissociation in water emulsions in crude oils. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;119:757–67.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kök MV, Iscan AG. Oil shale kinetics by differential methods. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2007;88:657–61.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Moore RG, Laureshen CJ, Belgrave JDM, Ursenbach MG, Mehta SA. In situ combustion in Canadian heavy oil reservoirs. Fuel. 1995;74:1169–75.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Varfolomeev MA, Nagrimanov RN, Galukhin AV, Vakhin AV, Solomonov BN, Nurgaliev DK, et al. Contribution of thermal analysis and kinetics of Siberian and Tatarstan regions crude oils for in situ combustion process. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;122:1375–84.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kok MV. Combustion characteristics of Fossil Fuels by thermal analysis methods. Handb Combust. 2010;3:75–87.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Varfolomeev MA, Nurgaliev DK, Kok MV. Thermal, kinetics, and oxidation mechanism studies of light crude oils in limestone and sandstone matrix using TG-DTG-DTA: effect of heating rate and mesh size. Pet Sci Technol. 2016;34:1647–53.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shishkin YL. Fractional and component analysis of crude oils by the method of dynamic microdistillation—differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetry. Thermochim Acta. 2006;441:162–7.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shishkin YL. A new quick method of determining the group hydrocarbon composition of crude oils and oil heavy residues based on their oxidative distillation (cracking) as monitored by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Thermochim Acta. 2006;440:156–65.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kok MV, Gundogar AS. DSC study on combustion and pyrolysis behaviors of Turkish crude oils. Fuel Process Technol. 2013;116:110–5.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kök MV, Iscan AG. Catalytic effects of metallic additives on the combustion properties of crude oils by thermal analysis techniques. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2001;64:1311–8.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kök MV, Karacan Ö, Pamir R. Kinetic analysis of oxidation behavior of crude oil SARA constituents. Energy Fuels. 1998;12:580–8.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Varfolomeev MA, Galukhin A, Nurgaliev DK, Kok MV. Thermal decomposition of Tatarstan Ashal’cha heavy crude oil and its SARA fractions. Fuel. 2016;186:122–7.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Varfolomeev MA, Nurgaliev DK, Kok MV. Calorimetric study approach for crude oil combustion in the presence of clay as catalyst. Pet Sci Technol. 2016;34:1624–30.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kok MV. Clay concentration and heating rate effect on crude oil combustion by thermogravimetry. Fuel Process Technol. 2012;96:134–9.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ranjbar M. Influence of reservoir rock composition on crude oil pyrolysis and combustion. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 1993;27:87–95.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kok MV, Gundogar AS. Effect of different clay concentrations on crude oil combustion kinetics by thermogravimetry. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;99:779–83.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kök MV. Influence of reservoir rock composition on the combustion kinetics of crude oil. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009;97:397.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Karimian M, Schaffie M, Fazaelipoor MH. Determination of activation energy as a function of conversion for the oxidation of heavy and light crude oils in relation to in situ combustion. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;125:301–11.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ismail NB, Klock KA, Hascakir B. In-situ combustion experience in heavy oil carbonate. In: SPE Canada heavy oil technical conference Calgary, Alberta: Society of Petroleum Engineers; June 2016.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Li Y-B, Zhao J-Z, Pu W-F, Jia H, Peng H, Zhong D, et al. Catalytic effect analysis of metallic additives on light crude oil by TG and DSC tests. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;113:579–87.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Drici O, Vossoughi S. Catalytic effect of heavy metal oxides on crude oil combustion. SPE Reserv Eng. 1987;2:591–5.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rezaei M, Schaffie M, Ranjbar M. Thermocatalytic in situ combustion: influence of nanoparticles on crude oil pyrolysis and oxidation. Fuel. 2013;113:516–21.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pu W, Pang S, Jia H. Using DSC/TG/DTA techniques to re-evaluate the effect of clays on crude oil oxidation kinetics. J Pet Sci Eng. 2015;134:123–30.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Akin S, Kok MV, Bagci S, Karacan O. Oxidation of heavy oil and their SARA fractions: its role in modeling in-situ combustion. In: SPE annual technical conference exhibition. Dallas, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers; October 2000.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yuan C, Varfolomeev MA, Emelianov DA, Eskin AA, Nagrimanov RN, Kok MV, et al. Oxidation behavior of light crude oil and its SARA fractions characterized by TG and DSC techniques: differences and connections. Energy Fuels. 2018;32:801–8.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Liu D, Song Q, Tang J, Zheng R, Yao Q. Interaction between saturates, aromatics and resins during pyrolysis and oxidation of heavy oil. J Pet Sci Eng. 2017;154:543–50.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wei B, Zou P, Shang J, Gao K, Li Y, Sun L, et al. Integrative determination of the interactions between SARA fractions of an extra-heavy crude oil during combustion. Fuel. 2018;234:850–7.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kok MV, Karacan CO. Behavior and Effect of SARA fractions of oil during combustion. In: International thermal operations heavy oil symposium Bakersfield, California: Society of Petroleum Engineers; 1997.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhao S, Pu W, Sun B, Gu F, Wang L. Comparative evaluation on the thermal behaviors and kinetics of combustion of heavy crude oil and its SARA fractions. Fuel. 2019;239:117–25.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Freitag NP. Evidence that naturally occurring inhibitors affect the low-temperature oxidation kinetics of heavy oil. J Can Pet Technol. 2010;49:36–41.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ushakova A, Zatsepin V, Varfolomeev M, Emelyanov D. Study of the radical chain mechanism of hydrocarbon oxidation for in situ combustion process. J Combust. 2017;2017:1–11.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kök MV, Gul KG. Combustion characteristics and kinetic analysis of Turkish crude oils and their SARA fractions by DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;114:269–75.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kok MV, Gul KG. Thermal characteristics and kinetics of crude oils and SARA fractions. Thermochim Acta. 2013;569:66–70.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Varfolomeev MA, Rakipov IT, Isakov DR, Nurgaliev DK, Kok MV. Characterization and kinetics of Siberian and Tatarstan regions crude oils using differential scanning calorimetry. Pet Sci Technol. 2015;33:865–71.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Li J, Mehta SA, Moore RG, Zalewski E, Ursenbach MG, Van Fraassen K. Investigation of the oxidation behaviour of pure hydrocarbon components and crude oils utilizing PDSC thermal technique. J Can Pet Technol. 2006;45:48–53.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Li J, Mehta SA, Moore RG, Ursenbach MG. New insights into oxidation behaviours of crude oils. J Can Pet Technol. 2009;48:12–5.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Li Y-B, Chen Y-F, Pu W-F, Dong H, Gao H, Jin F-Y, et al. Low temperature oxidation characteristics analysis of ultra-heavy oil by thermal methods. J Ind Eng Chem. 2017;48:249–58.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wei B, Zou P, Zhang X, Xu X, Wood C, Li Y. Investigations of structure–property–thermal degradation kinetics alterations of Tahe Asphaltenes caused by low temperature oxidation. Energy Fuels. 2018;32:1506–14.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kök MV. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis and feasibilty study of medium grade crude oil field. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;91:745–8.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kök MV, Sztatisz J, Pokol G. High-pressure DSC applications on crude oil combustion. Energy Fuels. 1997;11:1137–42.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Das SC. A study of oxidation reaction kinetics during an air injection process. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Adelide, Adelaide, Austrailia; 2010.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Fan C, Zan C, Zhang Q, Shi L, Hao Q, Jiang H, et al. Air Injection for enhanced oil recovery: in situ monitoring the low-temperature oxidation of oil through thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry and pressure differential scanning calorimetry. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2015;54:6634–40.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kök MV, Varfolomeev MA, Nurgaliev DK. Thermal characterization of crude oils by pressurized differential scanning calorimeter (PDSC). J Pet Sci Eng. 2019;177:540–3.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Yuan C, Emelianov DA, Varfolomeev MA, Pu W, Ushakova AS. Oxidation Behavior and kinetics of eight C20–C54 n-alkanes by high pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP-DSC). Energy Fuels. 2018;32:7933–42.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Anto-Darkwah E, Cinar M. Effect of pressure on the isoconversional in situ combustion kinetic analysis of Bati Raman crude oil. J Pet Sci Eng. 2016;143:44–53.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Greaves M, Field RW, Dudley JWO. Factorial experiments In: In-situ combustion annual technical meeting. Calgary, Alberta: Petroleum Society of Canada; 1990.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bagci S. Effect of pressure on combustion kinetics of heavy oils. Energy Sources. 2005;27:887–98.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Vyazovkin S. Isoconversional kinetics of thermally stimulated processes. Cham: Springer; 2015.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Varfolomeev MA, Nagrimanov RN, Samatov AA, Rakipov IT, Nikanshin AD, Vakhin AV, et al. Chemical evaluation and kinetics of Siberian, north regions of Russia and Republic of Tatarstan crude oils. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff. 2016;38:1031–8.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Karimian M, Schaffie M, Fazaelipoor MH. A kinetic investigation into the in situ combustion reactions of Iranian heavy oil from Kuh-E-Mond reservoir. Iran J Oil Gas Sci Technol. 2017;6:18–33.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Karimian M, Schaffie M, Fazaelipoor MH. Estimation of the kinetic triplet for in situ combustion of crude oil in the presence of limestone matrix. Fuel. 2017;209:203–10.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Gundogar AS, Kok MV. Thermal characterization, combustion and kinetics of different origin crude oils. Fuel. 2014;123:59–65.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pu W, Chen Y, Li Y, Zou P, Li D. Comparison of different kinetic models for heavy oil oxidation characteristic evaluation. Energy Fuels. 2017;31:12665–76.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Pereira AN, Trevisan OV. Thermoanalysis and reaction kinetics of heavy oil combustion. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng. 2014;36:393–401.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kok MV. Thermal behavior and kinetics of crude oils at low heating rates by differential scanning calorimeter. Fuel Process Technol. 2012;96:123–7.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Li Y-B, Chen Y, Pu W-F, Gao H, Bai B. Experimental investigation into the oxidative characteristics of Tahe heavy crude oil. Fuel. 2017;209:194–202.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kok MV, Ozgur E. Combustion performance and kinetics of oil shales. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff. 2016;38:1039–47.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kök MV, Varfolomeev MA, Nurgaliev DK. Crude oil characterization using TGA-DTA, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS techniques. J Pet Sci Eng. 2017;154:537–42.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kok MV, Ozgur E. Combustion performance and kinetics of oil shales. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff. 2016;38:1039–47.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Altun NE, Hicyilmaz C, Hwang J-Y, Bagci AS, Kok MV. Oil shales in the world and Turkey; reserves, current situation and future prospects: a review. In: Raukas A, editor. Oil shale. Talinn: Estonian Academy Publishers; 2006. p. 211–28.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Yen TF, Chilingar GV. Introduction to oil shales. In: Yen TF, Chilingarian GV, editors. Development in petroleum sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1976. p. 1–12.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kok MV. Oil shale: pyrolysis, combustion, and environment: a review. Energy Sources. 2002;24:135–43.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Khakimova L, Bondarenko T, Cheremisin A, Myasnikov A, Varfolomeev M. High pressure air injection kinetic model for Bazhenov Shale Formation based on a set of oxidation studies. J Pet Sci Eng. 2019;172:1120–32.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kök MV. Heating rate effect on the DSC kinetics of oil shales. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2007;90:817–21.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kok MV, Şengüler İ. Geological and thermal characterization of Eskişehir region oil shales. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;116:367–72.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kok MV. Thermal investigation of Seyitomer oil shale. Thermochim Acta. 2001;369:149–55.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kok MV. Geological considerations for the economic evaluation of Turkish oil shale deposits and their combustion-pyrolysis behavior. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff. 2009;32:323–35.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kok MV. Evaluation of Turkish oil shales-thermal analysis approach. In: Kann J, editor. oil shale. Talinn: Estonian Academy Publishers; 2001. p. 131–8.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kök MV, Sztatisz J, Pokol G. Characterization of oil shales by high pressure DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1999;56:939–46.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rogers RN, Smith LC. Estimation of preexponential factor from thermal decomposition curve of an unweighed sample. Anal Chem. 1967;39:1024–5.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    ASTM E698-18: Standard test method for kinetic parameters for thermally unstable materials using differential scanning calorimetry and the Flynn/Wall/Ozawa Method. ASTM International; 2018.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kök MV, Pamir MR. ASTM kinetics of oil shales. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1998;53:567–75.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Skala D, Kopsch H, Sokić M, Neumann H-J, Jovanović J. Thermogravimetrically and differential scanning calorimetrically derived kinetics of oil shale pyrolysis. Fuel. 1987;66:1185–91.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Parsons AF. An introduction to free radical chemistry. Hoboken: Wiley; 2000.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Phillips CR, Luymes R, Halahel TM. Enthalpies of pyrolysis and oxidation of Athabasca oil sands. Fuel. 1982;61:639–46.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Karacan O, Kok MV. Pyrolysis analysis of crude oils and their fractions. Energy Fuels. 1997;11:385–91.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Chen K, Wang Z, Liu H, Guo A. Study on thermal performance of heavy oils by using differential scanning calorimetry. Fuel Process Technol. 2012;99:82–9.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rath J, Wolfinger MG, Steiner G, Krammer G, Barontini F, Cozzani V. Heat of wood pyrolysis. Fuel. 2003;82:81–91.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Brennan WP, Miller B, Whitwell JC. Improved method of analyzing curves in differential scanning calorimetry. Ind Eng Chem Fundam. 1969;8:314–8.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Guzmán C, Montero C, Briceńo MI, Chirinos ML, Layrisse I. Physical properties and characterization of venezuelan heavy and extraheavy crudes and bitumens. Fuel Sci Technol Int. 1989;7:571–98.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zeng J, Fan LT, Schlup JR. Critical thermodynamic analysis of differential scanning calorimetry for studying chemical kinetics. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1998;51:205–18.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rosenvold RJ, DuBow JB, Rajeshwar K. Thermophysical characterization of oil sands. 4. Therm Anal Thermochim Acta. 1982;58:325–31.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ritchie RGS, Roche RS, Steedman W. A pyrolysis-gas chromatographic analysis of Athabasca bitumen. Ind Eng Chem Prod Res Dev. 1978;17:370–2.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Ma Y, Li S. The pyrolysis, extraction and kinetics of Buton oil sand bitumen. Fuel Process Technol. 2012;100:11–5.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Chen K, Wang Z, Liu H, Ruan Y, Guo A. Thermodynamic and thermokinetic study on pyrolysis process of heavy oils. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;112:1423–31.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Berkovich AJ, Levy JH, Young BR, Schmidt SJ. Predictive heat model for australian oil shale drying and retorting. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2000;39:2592–600.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Berkovich AJ, Levy JH, Schmidt SJ, Young BR. Heat capacities and enthalpies for some Australian oil shales from non-isothermal modulated DSC. Thermochim Acta. 2000;357–358:41–5.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Liu QQ, Han XX, Li QY, Huang YR, Jiang XM. TG–DSC analysis of pyrolysis process of two Chinese oil shales. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;116:511–7.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kök MV, Pamir MR. Non-isothermal pyrolysis and kinetics of oil shales. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1999;56:953–8.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kok MV, Pamir R. Pyrolysis kinetics of oil shales determined by DSC and TG/DTG. In: Kann J, editor. oil shale. Talinn: Estonian Academy Publishers; 2003. p. 57–68.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Skala D, Kopsch H, Sokić M, Neumann HJ, Jovanović JA. Kinetics and modelling of oil shale pyrolysis. Fuel. 1990;69:490–6.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Skala D, Sokić M, Tomić J, Kopsch H. Kinetic analysis of consecutive reactions using TG and DSC techniques. J Therm Anal. 1989;35:1441–58.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Değirmenci L, Durusoy T. Effect of heating rate on pyrolysis kinetics of Göynük oil shale. Energy Sources. 2002;24:931–6.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Wang W, Li S, Yue C, Ma Y. Multistep pyrolysis kinetics of North Korean oil shale. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;119:643–9.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Palayangoda SS, Nguyen QP. Thermal behavior of raw oil shale and its components. Talinn: Estonian Academy Publishers; 2015. p. 131–8.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Milosavljevic I, Oja V, Suuberg EM. Thermal effects in cellulose pyrolysis: relationship to char formation processes. Ind Eng Chem Res. 1996;35:653–62.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Khraisha YH, Shabib IM. Thermal analysis of shale oil using thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Energy Convers Manag. 2002;43:229–39.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Zanier A, Jäckle HW. Heat capacity measurements of petroleum fuels by modulated DSC. Thermochim Acta. 1996;287:203–12.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Zanier A. Application of modulated temperature DSC to distillate fuels and lubricating greases. J Therm Anal Calorim. 1998;54:381–90.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Berkovich AJ, Young BR, Levy JH, Schmidt SJ, Ray A. Thermal characterisation of Australian oil shales. J Therm Anal. 1997;49:737–43.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Al-Harahsheh M, Al-Ayed O, Robinson J, Kingman S, Al-Harahsheh A, Tarawneh K, et al. Effect of demineralization and heating rate on the pyrolysis kinetics of Jordanian oil shales. Fuel Process Technol. 2011;92:1805–11.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Karabakan A, Yürüm Y. Effect of the mineral matrix in the reactions of oil shales: 1. Pyrolysis reactions of Turkish Göynük and US Green River oil shales. Fuel. 1998;77:1303–9.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Varma-Nair M, Wunderlich B. Non isothermal heat capacities and chemical reactions using a modulated DSC. J Therm Anal. 1996;46:879–92.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Khoshooei MA, Sharp D, Maham Y, Afacan A, Dechaine GP. A new analysis method for improving collection of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of binary mixtures using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermochim Acta. 2018;659:232–41.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Khoshooei MA, Sharp D, Afacan A, Dechaine GP. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of binary mixtures of 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, 1-nonanol and 1,3-propanediol at P = 101.3 kPa using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). J Chem Thermodyn. 2019;132:105–12.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Khoshooei MA. Vapour-liquid equilibrium of by-products n-alcohols and 1, 3-propanediol from polyol production. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton; 2013.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Focke WW, van der Westhuizen I. Oxidation induction time and oxidation onset temperature of polyethylene in air. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;99:285–93.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Maleville X, Faure D, Legros A, Hipeaux JC. Oxidation of mineral base oils of petroleum origin: the relationship between chemical composition, thickening, and composition of degradation products. Lubr Sci. 2006;9:1–60.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Cranton GE. Composition and oxidation of petroleum fractions. Thermochim Acta. 1976;14:201–8.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Perez JM. Oxidative properties of lubricants using thermal analysis. Thermochim Acta. 2000;357–358:47–56.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Sharma BK, Stipanovic AJ. Development of a new oxidation stability test method for lubricating oils using high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry. Thermochim Acta. 2003;402:1–18.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hassel RL. Thermal analysis: an alternative method of measuring oil stability. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1976;53:179–81.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    ASTM D6186-08(2013): Standard test method for oxidation induction time of lubricating oils by pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC). ASTM International. 2013.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Kauffman RE, Rhine WE. Development of a remaining useful life of a lubricant evaluation technique. Part I: Differential scanning calorimetric techniques. Lubr Eng. 1988;22:154–61.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Bowman WF, Stachowiak GW. Determining the oxidation stability of lubricating oils using sealed capsule differential scanning calorimetry (SCDSC). Tribol Int. 1996;29:27–34.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Barman BN. Behavioral differences between group I and group II base oils during thermo-oxidative degradation. Tribol Int. 2002;35:15–26.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Adhvaryu A, Perez JM, Singh ID. Application of quantitative NMR spectroscopy to oxidation kinetics of base oils using a pressurized differential scanning calorimetry technique. Energy Fuels. 1999;13:493–8.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Adhvaryu A, Erhan SZ, Sahoo SK, Singh ID. Thermo-oxidative stability studies on some new generation API group II and III base oils. Fuel. 2002;81:785–91.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Cerny J, Strnad Z, Sebor G. Composition and oxidation stability of SAE 15 W-40 engine oils. Tribol Int. 2001;34:127–34.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Jezl J, Stuart A, Schneider A. Interrelated effects of oil components on oxidation stability. Ind Eng Chem. 1958;50:947–50.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Zuidema HH. Oxidation of lubricating oils. Chem Rev. 1946;38:197–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Davidson School of Chemical EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  3. 3.Department of Chemical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations