Study of gases released under incomplete combustion using PCFC–FTIR
- 11 Downloads
In order to get new insights on cable behavior during real-scale fires, the gases released under incomplete combustion in pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter were recorded for several PVC and halogen-free flame-retardant cables. Incomplete combustion was monitored by changing combustion temperature between 600 and 900 °C. Gases were identified using PCFC–FTIR coupling. Quantitative assessment of different gases produced during combustion was also carried out. It appears that larger amounts of unburnt gases are produced for PVC cable at low temperature (< 650 °C). Moreover, CO release is observed for PVC cable up to 800 °C while this gas disappears between 700 and 750 °C for halogen-free flame-retardant cables. Interestingly, the CO production is non-monotonous upon the temperature range investigated. These analyses would be useful to assess the risk of multiple re-ignitions during cable burning in real-scale fires, especially in confined compartments.
KeywordsIncomplete combustion Electrical cables PVC Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter
The authors thank Dr. Belkacem Otazaghine for his help to carry out and to interpret Py-GC/MS analyses and Loïc Dumazert for his help to manage coupling analyses.
- 1.Cogen JM, Lin TS, Whaley PD. Material design for fire safety in wire and cable applications. In: Wilkie CA, Morgan AB, editors. Fire retardancy of polymeric materials. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2010. p. 783–808.Google Scholar
- 2.IEC 60332-2-2. Tests on electric and optical fibre cables under fire conditions—part 2-2: test for vertical flame propagation for a single small insulated wire or cable—procedure for diffusion flame, Geneva, Switzerland; 2004.Google Scholar
- 3.IEC 61034-2. Measurement of smoke density of cables burning under defined conditions—part 2 test procedures, Geneva, Switzerland; 2006.Google Scholar
- 4.Hunter LW. Fire hazards of electric cables in nuclear power plants. Johns Hopkins APL Tech Dig (Appl Phys Lab). 1983;4:205–11.Google Scholar
- 11.Audouin L, Prétrel H, Zavaleta P, OECD PRISME 2 Fire Research Project. Current status and perspectives. In: 13th International post-conference seminar on fire safety in nuclear power plants and installations; 2011–2016.Google Scholar
- 13.Investigation heat and smoke propagation mechanisms in multi-compartment fire scenarios, Final Report of the PRISME project, NEA/CSNI/R(2017)14, Jan 2018.Google Scholar
- 21.Guo H, Lyon RE, Safronava N, Walters RN, Crowley S. Kinetics of carbon monoxide yield in burning of polymeric solids containing flame retardants. In: 28th Annual conference on recent advances in flame retardancy of polymeric materials, FLAME, Newton; 2017.Google Scholar
- 22.Guo H, Lyon RE, Safronava N, Walters RN, Crowley S. Kinetic effects of carbon monoxide yield in burning of polymeric solids containing flame retardants. In: 10th U.S. national combustion meeting, College Park; 2017.Google Scholar
- 23.Speitel L, Walters RN, Lyon RE. Toxicity assessment of polymers at constant fuel/oxygen ratios in the microscale combustion calorimeter. San Francisco: Fire and Materials; 2017.Google Scholar
- 24.Walters RN, Speitel L, Lyon RE. Combustion products of polymers at constant fuel/oxygen ratios. In: INTERFLAM 2016, Royal Holloway College, London; 4–6 July 2016.Google Scholar
- 25.Guo H, Lyon RE, Safronava N, Walters RN, Crowley S. A simplified model of carbon monoxide yield in burning of polymeric solids containing flame retardants. In: 10th Mediterranean combustion symposium, Naples; 2017.Google Scholar
- 26.Plumecocq W, Audouin L, Zavaleta P. Horizontal cable tray fire in a well‐confined and mechanically ventilated enclosure using a two-zone model. Fire and Materials; 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/fam.2698.
- 28.Folarin O, Eromosele I, Eromosele C. Thermal stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) by metal carboxylates of Ximenia Americana seed oil under inert condition. J Mater Environ Sci. 2012;3:507–14.Google Scholar
- 34.Noto T, Babushok V, Burgess DR Jr, Hamins A, Tsang W, Miziolek A. Effect of halogenated flame inhibitors on C1 − C2 organic flames. In: 26th Symposium on combustion/the combustion institute; 1996. p. 1377–1383.Google Scholar