Effect of electromagnet-based fuel-reforming system on high-viscous and low-viscous biofuel fueled in heavy-duty CI engine

  • S. ThiyagarajanEmail author
  • Ankit Sonthalia
  • V. Edwin Geo
  • B. Ashok
  • K. Nanthagopal
  • V. Karthickeyan
  • B. Dhinesh


In the present study, a high-viscous biofuel, namely wheat germ oil (WGO), and a low-viscous biofuel, namely pine oil (PO), are used in a twin-cylinder diesel engine. The fuel ionization filter is fitted with a permanent magnet, an electromagnet, and the combination of permanent magnet and electromagnet, and their effect on the engine performance, emission, and combustion is studied. A fuel ionization filter placed in the fuel line, before the injection pump, ionizes the fuel molecules and increases the rate of disintegration of droplets due to a decrease in viscosity and surface tension. The tests are performed at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm with loads varying from no load to full load at intervals of 25%. As compared to diesel, the engine operation with ionization filter increased brake thermal efficiency and reduced the fuel consumption for both PO and WGO. The increase in brake thermal efficiency is in the order: permanent magnet, electromagnet, and combination of electromagnet and permanent magnet. The magnetic field strength of electromagnet is higher than permanent magnet which tends to increase the ionization of the fuel. When both the magnets are combined, the magnetic field strength further increases resulting in more ionization of the fuel. It is also perceived that magnetic effect reduces the viscosity of the fuel. Regulated emissions, namely unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions, reduced, whereas NOx emissions increased with WGO and ionization filter. With pine oil and ionization filter, all the regulated emissions decreased as compared to neat pine oil. The reduction in HC, CO, and smoke emissions was highest for combination of electromagnet and permanent magnet followed by electromagnet and permanent magnet. The study shows that combination of permanent magnet and electromagnet resulted in the best engine performance and emission characteristics.


Wheat germ oil Pine oil Ionization Ignition delay Permanent magnet Electromagnet 



Brake thermal efficiency


Nitric oxide


Carbon dioxide


Top dead center


Compression ignition


Pine oil


Revolutions per minute


Permanent magnet




Carbon mono oxide





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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Thiyagarajan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ankit Sonthalia
    • 2
  • V. Edwin Geo
    • 1
  • B. Ashok
    • 3
  • K. Nanthagopal
    • 3
  • V. Karthickeyan
    • 4
  • B. Dhinesh
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Automobile EngineeringSRM ISTKattankulathurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Automobile EngineeringSRM ISTDelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSri Krishna College of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMepco Schlenk Engineering CollegeSivakasi, VirudhunagarIndia

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