Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 137, Issue 6, pp 1981–1990 | Cite as

A study on hot-air drying of pomegranate

Kinetics of dehydration, rehydration and effects on bioactive compounds
  • Özge SüferEmail author
  • Tunç Koray Palazoğlu


Pomegranate arils were dehydrated at 55, 65, 75 °C using hot-air technique, and the impacts of drying on color, texture, rehydration ratio, shrinkage of arils were evaluated as well as bioactive compounds like total phenolics, total monomeric anthocyanins, total tannins and radical scavenging activity. Sigmoid model gave the best results at all studied temperatures for drying kinetics. Effective moisture diffusivities of arils were 3.5689 × 10−11 m2 s−1 (at 55 °C), 9.3950 × 10−11 m2 s−1 (at 65 °C), 1.9330 × 10−10 m2 s−1 (at 75 °C), and activation energy was 80.33 kJ mol−1. Averaged convective mass transfer coefficients and moisture extraction rates were also calculated, and their highest values were observed at 75 °C. Rehydration was only conducted at 25 °C, and two-term exponential decay model was the most suitable equation for describing rehydration phenomenon. Thermal operation caused important changes in L*, b*, hardness and shrinkage (p < 0.05). Total phenolics, total monomeric anthocyanins and total tannins of dried arils were changed between 5512.37–6895.80 mg gallic acid equivalent, 163.87–324.58 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent and 1024.99–2467.77 mg per kg dry matter, respectively. The radical scavenging activity was decreased from the initial value of 77.42% to circa 24.79% by drying. Because high temperature had harmful effect on fruit, temperature of 65 °C may be advisable for dehydration of pomegranate arils.


Pomegranate Hot-air drying Rehydration Mathematical modeling Bioactive compounds 



This study was supported by Scientific Researches Project Unit of University of Mersin (Project Number: 2016-2-TP3-1809).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this article declared that they had no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10973_2019_8102_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 26 kb)


  1. 1.
    Viuda-Martos M, Fernández-Lóaez J, Pérez-álvarez JA. Pomegranate and its many functional components as related to human health: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2010;9(6):635–54.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bchir B, Besbes S, Karoui R, Attia H, Paquot M, Blecker C. Effect of air-drying conditions on physico-chemical properties of osmotically pre-treated pomegranate seeds. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2012;5(5):1840–52.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexandre EMC, Araújo P, Duarte MF, Freitas V, Pintado M, Saraiva JA. Experimental design, modeling and optimization of high-pressure-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from pomegranate peel. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2017;10(5):886–900.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dhinesh KV, Ramasamy D. Pomegranate processing and value addition: review. J Food Process Technol. 2016;7(3):565.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mphahlele RR, Fawole OA, Makunga NP, Opara UL. Effect of drying on the bioactive compounds, antioxidant, antibacterial and antityrosinase activities of pomegranate peel. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):143.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ju HY, Zhao SH, Mujumdar AS, Fang XM, Gao ZJ, Zheng ZA, Xiao HW. Energy efficient improvements in hot air drying by controlling relative humidity based on Weibull and Bi-Di models. Food Bioprod Process. 2018;111:20–9.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Igual M, García-Martínez E, Martín-Esparza ME, Martínez-Navarrete N. Effect of processing on the drying kinetics and functional value of dried apricot. Food Res Int. 2012;47(2):284–90.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Movagharnejad K, Vahdatkhoram F, Nanvakenari S. Optimization of microwave and infrared drying process of nettle leaves using design of experiments. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rastogi NK, Angersbach A, Niranjan K, Knorr D. Rehydration kinetics of high pressure pretreated and osmotically dehydrated pineapple. J Food Sci. 2000;65(5):838–41.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fasogbon BM, Gbadamosi SO, Talwo KA. Studies on the osmotic dehydration and rehydration characteristics of pineapple slices. J Food Process Technol. 2013;4(4):1–8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Onwude DI, Hashim N, Janius RB, Nawi NM, Abdan K. Modeling the thin-layer drying of fruits and vegetables: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2016;15(3):599–618.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kayran S, Doymaz İ. Determination of drying kinetics and physicochemical characterization of apricot pomace in hot-air dryer. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130(2):1163–70.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tekin ZH, Baslar M. The effect of ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying on the drying rate and quality of red peppers. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;132(2):1131–43.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang J, Ma P, Zhang X, Wang B, Wu J, Xing X. Isothermal drying kinetics of paddy using thermogravimetric analysis. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;134(3):2359–65.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Surendhar A, Sivasubramanian V, Vidhyeswari D, Deepanraj B. Energy and exergy analysis, drying kinetics, modeling and quality parameters of microwave-dried turmeric slices. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chong CH, Law CL, Figiel A, Wojdylo A, Oziemblowski M. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of some fruits dehydrated by a combination of different methods. Food Chem. 2013;141(4):3889–96.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barrett DM, Beaulieu JC, Shewfelt R. Color, flavor, texture and nutritional quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: desirable levels, instrumental and sensory measurement and the effects of processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50(5):369–89.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Porciuncula BDA, Segura LA, Laurindo JB. Processes for controlling the structure and texture of dehydrated banana. Dry Technol. 2016;34(2):167–76.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Madiouli J, Lecomte D, Nganya T, Chavez S, Sghaier J, Sammouda H. A method for determination of porosity change from shrinkage curves of deformable materials. Dry Technol. 2007;25:621–8.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    AOAC. AOAC method no 985.29. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Arlington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1990.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kingsly RP, Singh DB. Drying kinetics of pomegranate arils. J Food Eng. 2007;79:741–4.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malekjani N, Emam-Djomeh Z, Hashemabadi SH, Askari, GR. Modeling thin layer drying kinetics, moisture diffusivity and activation energy of hazelnuts during microwave-convective drying. Int J Food Eng. 2017. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaya A, Aydin O, Demirtas C. Concentration boundary conditions in the theoretical analysis of convective drying process. J Food Process Eng. 2007;30(5):546–77.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Caliskan G, Dirim SN. Drying characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) slices in convective and freeze dryer. Heat Mass Transf. 2017;53(6):2129–41.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Said LBH, Bellagha S, Allaf K. Measurements of texture, sorption isotherms and drying/rehydration kinetics of dehydrofrozen-textured apple. J Food Eng. 2015;165:22–33.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aral S, Beşe AV. Convective drying of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.): effect of experimental parameters on drying kinetics, color, shrinkage and rehydration capacity. Food Chem. 2016;210:577–84.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bennett LE, Jegasothy H, Konczak I, Frank D, Sudharmarajan S, Clingeleffer PR. Total polyphenolics and anti-oxidant properties of selected dried fruits and relationships to drying conditions. J Funct Foods. 2011;3(2):115–24.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li X, Wasila H, Liu L, Yuan T, Gao Z, Zhao B, Ahmad I. Physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions and antioxidant potential of pomegranate juices from 10 chinese cultivars and the environmental factors analysis. Food Chem. 2015;175:575–84.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aghraz A, Gonçalves S, Rodríguez-Solana R, Dra LA, Di Stefano V, Dugo G, Cicero N, Larhsini M, Markouk M, Romano A. Antioxidant activity and enzymes inhibitory properties of several extracts from two Moroccan Asteraceae species. S Afr J Bot. 2018;118:58–64.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hosu A, Cristea VM, Cimpoiu C. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks. Food Chem. 2014;150:113–8.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Doymaz I. Prediction of drying characteristics of pomegranate arils. Food Anal Methods. 2012;5(4):841–8.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Figiel A. Drying kinetics and quality of vacuum-microwave dehydrated garlic cloves and slices. J Food Eng. 2009;94:98–104.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Calín-Sanchez A, Figiel A, Szarycz M, Lech M, Nuncio-Jáuregui N, Carbonell-Barrachina AA. Drying kinetics and energy consumption in the dehydration of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils and rind. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2014;7(7):2071–83.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mundada M, Hathan BS, Maske S. Convective dehydration kinetics of osmotically pretreated pomegranate arils. Biosyst Eng. 2010;107(4):307–16.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Doymaz I. Drying of pomegranate arils and selection of a suitable drying model. Food Biophys. 2011;6(4):461–7.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zogzas NP, Maroulis ZB, Marinos-Kouris D. Moisture diffusivity data compilation in foodstuffs. Dry Technol. 1996;14:2225–53.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Białobrzewski I. Determination of the mass transfer coefficient during hot-air-drying of celery root. J Food Eng. 2007;78(4):1388–96.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sadeghi M, Kesbi OM, Mireei SA. Mass transfer characteristics during convective, microwave and combined microwave-convective drying of lemon slices. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(3):471–8.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Beigi M. Mathematical modelling and determination of mass transfer characteristics of celeriac slices under vacuum drying. Period Polytech Chem Eng. 2017;61(2):109–16.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Prasertsan S, Saen-saby P. Heat pump drying of agricultural materials. Dry Technol. 1998;16(1–2):235–50.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cox S, Gupta S, Abu-Ghannam N. Effect of different rehydration temperatures on the moisture content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and textural properties of edible Irish brown seaweed. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2012;47(2):300–7.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bilbao-Sainz C, Andres A, Fito P. Hydration kinetics of dried apple as affected by drying conditions. J Food Eng. 2005;68:369–76.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mulik SV, Bhosale MG. Effect of process variable in osmo-convective dehydration of pomegranate arils. Int J Innov Eng Technol. 2015;5(4):285–93.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lee JH, Rhim JW. Rehydration kinetics of vacuum-dried Salicornia herbacea. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2010;19(4):1083–7.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Maskan A, Kaya S, Maskan M. Hot air and sun drying of grape leather (pestil). J Food Eng. 2002;54:81–8.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Deng L, Yang X, Mujumdar AS, Zhao J, Wang D. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) drying: effects of different drying methods on drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and microstructure. Dry Technol. 2018;36(8):893–907.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cserhalmi Z, Sass-Kiss À, Tόth-Markus M, Lechner N. Study of pulsed electric field treated citrus juices. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2006;7(1–2):49–54.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maskan M. Kinetics of colour change of kiwifruits during hot air and microwave drying. J Food Eng. 2001;48:169–75.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vega-Gàlvez A, Ah-Hen K, Chacana M, Vergara J, Martínez-Monzό J, Garcìa-Segovia P, Lemus-Mondaca R, Di Scala K. Effect of temperature and air velocity on drying kinetics, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, colour, texture and microstructure of apple (var. Granny smith) slices. Food Chem. 2012;132(1):51–9.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ferreira D, Silva JALD, Pinto G, Santos C, Delgadillo I, Coimbra MA. Effect of sun-drying on microstructure and texture of S. Bartolomeu pears (Pyrus communis L.). Eur Food Res Technol. 2008;226:1545–52.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tontul I, Topuz A. Effects of different drying methods on the physicochemical properties of pomegranate leather (pestil). LWT Food Sci Technol. 2017;80:294–303.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Koua BK, Koffi PME, Gbaha P. Evolution of shrinkage, real density, porosity, heat and mass transfer coefficients during indirect solar drying of cocoa beans. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci. 2019;18(1):72–82.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Abbasi S. Investigation of changes in physical properties and microstructure and mathematical modeling of shrinkage of onion during hot air drying. Iran Food Sci Technol. 2011;7(1):92–8.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Horuz E, Maskan M. Hot air and microwave drying of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils. J Food Sci Technol. 2015;52(1):285–93.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lopez J, Vega-Gálvez A, Torres MJ, Lemus-Mondaca R, Quispe-Fuentes I, Di Scala K. Effect of dehydration temperature on physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.). Chil J Agric Res. 2013;73(3):293–300.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Karaaslan M, Yilmaz FM, Cesur Ö, Vardin H, Ikinci A, Dalgic AC. Drying kinetics and thermal degradation of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in pomegranate arils dried under vacuum conditions. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2014;49(2):595–605.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Šumić Z, Tepić A, Jokić S, Malbaša R. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process. Hem Ind. 2014;69(1):77–84.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Méndez-Lagunas L, Rodríguez-Ramírez J, Cruz-Gracida M, Sandoval-Torres S, Barriada-Bernal G. Convective drying kinetics of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa): effects on antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and total phenolic content. Food Chem. 2017;230:174–81.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Artık N, Anlı E, Konar N, Vural N. Gıdalarda bulunan fenolik bileşikler. İzmir: Sidas Medya; 2016 (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Larrauri J, Ruperez P, Saura-Calixto F. Effect of drying temperature on the stability of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of red grape pomace peels. J Agric Food Chem. 1997;45:1390–3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food EngineeringOsmaniye Korkut Ata UniversityOsmaniyeTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food EngineeringUniversity of MersinÇiftlikköy, YenişehirTurkey

Personalised recommendations