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Exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of cream pasteurisation plant

  • Gurjeet Singh
  • P. J. Singh
  • V. V. TyagiEmail author
  • P. Barnwal
  • A. K. Pandey
Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Cream is a milk derivative comparatively rich in fat, present in the form of emulsion of fat in skimmed milk, and acquired by physical extraction from raw milk with the help of centrifugal separator. The cream with variable fat content (10–40%) is commonly employed as an ingredient to traditional or modern desserts. It is also used in the production of value-added milk products such as butter and ghee apart from regular cooking applications. The pasteurisation, being an important safety requirement of milk food products, is usually materialised by heating the milk cream at a temperature of 90 °C for a period of one second. In the current work, thermodynamic and thermoeconomic derivatives in combination with all available constraints have been determined for high temperature short-time cream pasteurisation plant. The energy and exergy efficiency of cream pasteurisation plant was determined to be 86.88% and 66.11%, respectively. The cumulative value of energy destruction and exergy demolition in subunits of cream pasteurisation plant was estimated to be 93.88 kW and 11.39 kW, respectively, which mainly ascribed to complete enzymatic denaturation of fluid cream. The overall operating cost rate of complete cream pasteurisation plant was calculated as 1649.10 Rs./H, 22.02% portion of which was associated with electrical energy consumption. Further, the cost rate of exergy degradation for chilling and cooling activities was reported as 617.57 Rs./H and 357.55 Rs./H, respectively. The exergoeconomic factors of heating (14.75%) and chilling activity (0.82%) articulated that capital investment was dominant in the former while thermal degradations were enunciated most flagrant in latter.

Keywords

Energy efficiency Exergy efficiency Exergoeconomic analysis Cream pasteurisation plant 

List of symbols

AC

Annual cost of component (Rs.)

\( \dot{C} \)

Cost flow rate (Rs. H−1)

c

Exergetic cost (Rs. MJ−1)

cf, k

Unit exergetic cost of fuel (Rs. MJ−1)

cp, k

Unit exergetic cost of product (Rs. MJ−1)

cp

Specific heat (kJ kg−1 K−1)

CRF

Capital recovery factor

DD, k

Cost rate of exergy destruction (Rs. H−1)

\( \mathop E\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Energy (kJ s−1)

\( \mathop {\text{EL}}\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Energy loss rate (kW)

Eβ, k

Relative energy destruction ratio (%)

Exβ, k

Relative exergy destruction ratio (%)

EF, k

Energetic factor (%)

ExF, k

Exergetic factor (%)

ex

Specific exergy (kJ kg−1)

\( \mathop {\text{Ex}}\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Exergy rate (kW)

\( \mathop {\text{Ex}}\limits^{ \cdot }_{\text{D}} \)

Exergy destruction rate (kW)

EIP

Energy improvement potential (kW)

ExIP

Exergy improvement potential (kW)

f

Exergoeconomic factor of component

h

Specific enthalpy (kJ kg−1)

H

Hour

I

Interest rate (%)

J

Ratio of salvage value

\( \mathop m\limits^{ \cdot } \)

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)

MF

Milk fat

PEC

Purchase equipment cost (Rs.)

PWF

Present worth factor

PW

Present worth of component (Rs.)

r

Percentage relative cost difference (%)

Rs. MJ−1

Rupees per mega-joule

T

Temperature (K)

s

Specific entropy (kJ kg−1 K−1)

S

Entropy (kJ K−1)

S

Salvage value (Rs.)

SI

Sustainability index

TCI

Total cost of investment (Rs.)

TOCR

Total operating cost rate (Rs. H−1)

TPD

Tons per day

ν

Specific volume (m3 kg−1)

W

Work rate (kW)

\( \dot{Z}_{\text{T}} \)

Levelised cost rate associated with capital investment and operation and maintenance cost (Rs. H−1)

\( \dot{Z}_{\text{CI}} \)

Levelised cost rate associated with capital investment (Rs. H−1)

\( \dot{Z}_{\text{OM}} \)

Levelised cost rate associated with operation and maintenance cost (Rs. H−1)

HTST

High temperature short time

Greek letters

R

Universal gas constant (8.314 kJ mol−1 K−1)

ρ

Density (kg m−3)

\( \eta \)

Energy efficiency (%)

Ψ

Exergy efficiency (%)

0

Dead state

Euro

Rs.

Rupees (Indian currency)

Subscripts

BT

Balance tank

CF

Condenser and fan combination

CHS

Chilling section

CS

Cooling section

HS

Heating section

HE

Heat exchanger

P1

Pump-1

P2

Pump-2

P3

Pump-3

P4

Pump-4

P5

Pump-5

RS

Regeneration section

ST

Storage tank

WT

Water tank

k

Any component

In

Inlet

Out

Outlet

T

Total

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to acknowledge the support provided by Verka Milk Plant, Mohali, Punjab (India), and greatly appreciate the plant management and technical staff for their cooperation throughout the evaluation phase.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gurjeet Singh
    • 1
  • P. J. Singh
    • 1
  • V. V. Tyagi
    • 2
    Email author
  • P. Barnwal
    • 3
  • A. K. Pandey
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjab Engineering CollageChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.School of Energy ManagementShri Mata Vaishnao Devi UniversityJammuIndia
  3. 3.Dairy Engineering DivisionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  4. 4.Research Centre for Nano-Materials and Energy Technology (RCNMET), School of Science and TechnologySunway UniversityPetaling JayaMalaysia

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