Advertisement

Application of differential scanning calorimetry to freeze-dried milk and milk fractions

  • Alessandro Pugliese
  • Maria PaciulliEmail author
  • Emma Chiavaro
  • Germano Mucchetti
Article
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

The thermal profiles of whole freeze-dried raw milk, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) upon heating, were compared to those of their concentrate fractions (cream, skimmed milk, acid casein and whey) in order to associate the thermal peaks with the related components. Two peaks associated with fat melting, a glass transition attributed to caseins and a complex exothermic peak associated with lactose and its interactions with the other milk components were observed, in a close relation to the values of water activity of the samples. Freeze drying is the least invasive technique for drying milk, thus the results of this study may be attributed to the thermal transitions of milk components in their native state, unlike what is observed on roller- or spray-dried milk. The DSC technique is confirmed as an effective tool for the evaluation of the thermophysical properties of milk, as modified by different industrial processes.

Keywords

Thermal analysis Milk fractions Drying Phase transitions 

References

  1. 1.
    Murrieta-Pazos I, Gaiani C, Galet L, Cuq B, Desobry S, Scher J. Comparative study of particle structure evolution during water sorption: skim and whole milk powders. Coll Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011;87:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ganesan V, Rosentrater KA, Muthukumarappan K. Flowability and handling characteristics of bulk solids and powders e a review with implications for DDGS. Biosyst Eng. 2008;101:425–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iqbal T, Fitzpatrick JJ. Effect of storage conditions on the wall friction characteristics of three food powders. J Food Eng. 2006;72:273–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schuck P, Mejean S, Dolivet A, Jeantet R, Bhandari B. Keeping quality of dairy ingredients. Lait. 2007;87:481–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roos YH, Karel M. Phase transitions of mixtures of amorphous polysaccharides and sugars. Biotechnol Prog. 1990;7:159–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fitzpatrick JJ, Twomey M, Cerqueira PSM, Descamps N, Roos YH (2006) Glass transition and the caking of food powders. In: CHoPS-05 conference.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thomas MEC, Scher J, Desobry S. Lactose/β-lactoglobulin interaction during storage of model whey powders. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:1158–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thomas MEC, Scher J, Desobry-Banon S, Desobry S. Milk powders ageing: effect on physical and functional properties. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44:297–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Szulc K, Nazarko J, Ostrowska-Ligęza E, Lenart A. Effect of fat replacement on flow and thermal properties of dairy powders. LWT–Food Sci Technol. 2016;68:653–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pugliese A, Paciulli M, Chiavaro E, Mucchetti G. Characterization of commercial dried milk and some of its derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;123:2583–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cal S, Rodríguez-Puente B, Souto C, Concheiro A, Gómez-Amoza JL, Martínez-Pacheco R. Comparison of a spray-dried α-lactose monohydrate with a fully hydrated roller-dried β-lactose. Int J Pharm. 1996;136:13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rahman MS, Al-Hakmani H, Al-Alawi H, Al-Mahubi I. Thermal characteristics of freeze-dired camel milk and its major components. Thermochim Acta. 2012;549:116–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vuataz G. The phase diagram of milk: a new tool for optimising the drying process. Lait. 2002;82:485–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morgan F, Appolonia Nouzille C, Baechler R, Vuataz G, Raemy A. Lactose crystallisation and early Maillard reaction in skim milk powder and whey protein concentrates. Lait. 2005;85:315–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jouppila K, Roos YH. Glass transitions and crystallization in milk powders. J Dairy Sci. 1994;77:2907–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karel M, Lund DB. Physical principle of food preservation, vol. 137. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 2003. p. 117–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haque MK, Roos YH. Water plasticization and crystallization of lactose in spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures. J Food Sci Food Eng Phys Prop. 2004;69:23–9.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wirkowska M, Ostrowska-Ligęza E, Górska A, Koczon P. Thermal properties of fats extracted from powdered baby formulas. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;110:137–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Haque MK, Roos YH. Differences in the physical state and thermal behavior of spray-dried and freeze-dried lactose and lactose/protein mixtures. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2006;7:62–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chung HJ, Lim ST. Physical aging of amorphous starches (a review). Starch. 2006;58:599–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haque MK. Glass transition and enthalpy relaxation of amorphous food saccharides: a review. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:5701–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hogan SA, Famelart MH, O’Callaghan DJ, Schuck P. A novel technique for determining glass–rubber transition in dairy powders. J Food Eng. 2010;99:76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haque E, Whittaker AK, Gidley MJ, Deeth HC, Fibrianto K, Bhandari BR. Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate powder upon ageing and its effect on solubility. Food Chem. 2012;134:1368–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roos YH. Importance of glass transition and water activity to spray drying and stability of dairy powders. Lait. 2002;82:475–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Elzoghby AO, Helmy MW, Samy WM, Elgindy NA. Novel ionically crosslinked casein nanoparticles for flutamide delivery: formulation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Int J Nanomed. 2013;8:1721–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bengoechea C, Arrachid A, Guerrero A, Hill SE, Mitchell JR. Relationship between the glass transition temperature and the melt flow behavior for gluten, casein and soya. J Cereal Sci. 2007;45:275–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kalichevsky MT, Blanshard JMV, Tokarczuck PF. Effect of water content and sugars on the glass transition of casein and sodium caseinate. Int J Food Sci Technol. 1993;28:139–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gombas A, Szabó-Révész P, Kata M, Regdon G, Erős I. Quantitative determination of crystallinity of α-lactose monohydrate by DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2002;68:503–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szepes A, Fiebig A, Ulrich J, Szabó-Révész P. Structural study of α-lactose monohydrate subjected to microwave irradiation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2007;89:757–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and DrugUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly

Personalised recommendations