Effect of BaO on mineral structure and hydration behavior of phosphoaluminate cement

  • Pengyu Zhang
  • Shuxin Zhang
  • Shoude WangEmail author
  • Hao Liu
  • Lingchao Lu
  • Xin ChengEmail author


Phosphoaluminate cement (PAC) clinker was one new type of special cement, which exhibits good mechanical properties and durability. In this paper, the effect of BaO on the mineral structure and hydration behavior of PAC clinker were investigated. The experimental results showed that the mineral structure of PAC clinker was modified by the addition of barium oxide (BaO). The optimal content of BaO in PAC clinker was 10.5 mol% (the substitution mole ratio of BaO for CaO, calcium oxide). Compared with reference specimen, the rate of strength growth of hardened paste for PAC clinker with 10.5% BaO cured for 1, 3, 7 and 28 days was 50.8, 21.0, 27.0 and 49.9%, respectively. The possible reason was that the addition of BaO could activate crystal structure of calcium phosphoalumniate (8CaO·6Al2O3·P2O5, C8A6P, C8A6P) and improve its hydration activity, which has been proven by the XRD and hydration heat analysis. The addition of BaO also affected the ratio of hydration products of PAC clinker, which were illustrated by XRD and DSC analysis. The MIP analysis showed that the addition of BaO could optimize the pore structure of hardened paste for PAC clinker, which was accordance with the discussion of compressive strength of hardened paste for PAC clinker. In conclusion, the addition of BaO dramatically improved the compressive strength of hardened paste for PAC clinker and changed remarkably its ratio of hydration products.


Barium oxide Phosphoaluminate Hydration Compressive strength 



This work is supported by the 13th Five-Year the State Key Development Program (2016YFB0303505), Natural Science Foundations of China (51672108), Key Research and Development Plan of Shandong Province (2018GGX107009), Postdoctor Program of China (2018M633742) and University of Jinan (XBH1718). Also, supports from the 111 Project of International Corporation on Advanced Cement-based Materials (No. D17001) are greatly appreciated.


  1. 1.
    Chen B, Liu N. A novel lightweight concrete-fabrication and its thermal and mechanical properties. Constr Build Mater. 2013;44(7):691–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bantsis G, Mavridou S, Sikalidis C, Betsiou M, Oikonomou N. Comparison of low cost shielding-absorbing cement paste building materials in X-band frequency range using a variety of wastes. Ceram Int. 2012;38(5):3683–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dehwah HAF, Maslehuddin M, Austin SA. Long-term effect of sulfate ions and associated cation type on chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion in Portland cement concretes. Cem Concr Compos. 2002;24(1):17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gollop RS, Taylor HFW. Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack. I. Ordinary Portland cement paste. Cem Concr Res. 1992;22(6):1027–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rasheeduzzafar, Dakhil FH, Al-Gahtani AS, Al-Saadoun SS, Bader MA. Influence of cement composition on the corrosion of reinforcement and sulfate resistance of concrete. ACI Mater J. 1990;87(2):114–22.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Janevic T, Petrovic O, Bjelic I, Kubera A. Numerical simulation of sulfate ion migration in cement concrete under corrosion fatigue. Int J Pavement Res Technol. 2012;5(19):169–75.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balonis M, Lothenbach B, Saout GL, Glasser FP. Impact of chloride on the mineralogy of hydrated Portland cement systems. Cem Concr Res. 2010;40(7):1009–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thomas MDA, Hooton RD, Scott A, Zibara H. The effect of supplementary cementitious materials on chloride binding in hardened cement paste. Cem Concr Res. 2012;42(1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yildirim H, Ilica T, Sengul O. Effect of cement type on the resistance of concrete against chloride penetration. Constr Build Mater. 2011;25(3):1282–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tang XJ, Ling-Chao LU. Review on the hydration and hardening of alite-sulphoaluminate cement. J Univ Jinan. 2006;20:202.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang WW, Lu LC, Cui YJ, Chang J, Cheng X. Microstructure and properties of belite-calcium barium sulphoaluminate. J Chin Ceram Soc. 2007;35:467–71.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berger S, Coumes CCD, Bescop PL, Damidot D. Influence of a thermal cycle at early age on the hydration of calcium sulphoaluminate cements with variable gypsum contents. Cem Concr Res. 2011;41(2):149–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang S, Chen C, Lu L, Cheng X. Effects of slag and limestone powder on the hydration and hardening process of alite-barium calcium sulphoaluminate cement. Constr Build Mater. 2012;35(35):227–31.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lingchao Z, Shiquan S. Durability of alite-calcium barium sulphoaluminate cement. J Wuhan Univ Technol-Mater Sci. 2009;24(6):98.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang Shuai, Wang Shoude, Gong Chenchen, Lingchao Lu, Cheng Xin. Constituent phases and mechanical properties of iron oxide-additioned phosphoaluminate cement. Mater de Constr. 2015;65(318):e052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shiqun L, Jianshan H, et al. Fundamental study on aluminophosphate cement. Cem Concr Res. 1999;29:1549–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jia L, Shiqun L, Jiashan H. Study on the aluminophosphate glass-rich cement. Cem Concr Res. 2001;31:949–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shiqun L, Guohui Z, Ning Z. Study on hydraulic activity of aluminum-rich area in CaO-Al2O3-P2O5 system. J Chin Ceram Soc. 1998;26(2):142–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Katyal NK, Ahluwalia SC, Parkash R. Effect of barium on the formation of tricalcium silicate. Cem Concr Res. 1999;29:1857–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheng X, Chang J, Lu LC, Liu FT, Teng B. Study of Ba-bearing calcium sulphoaluminate minerals and cement. Cem Concr Res. 2000;30(1):77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xin C, Jun C, Lingchao L, Futian L, Bing T. Study of Ba-bearing calcium sulphoaluminate minerals and cement. Cem Concr Res. 2000;30:77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xin C, Jun C, Lingchao L, Futian L, Bing T. Study on the hydration of Ba-bearing calcium sulphoaluminate in the presence of gypsum. Cem Concr Res. 2004;34:2009–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    National standard of the people’s republic of China. GBT 1345-2005. Standard for test method of fineness of cement. Beijing: China Standard Press.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    National standard of the people’s republic of China. GB/T50082-2009. Standard for test method of mechanical properties on ordinary concrete. Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang S, Wang S, Lu L, et al. Constituent phases and mechanical properties of iron oxide-additioned phosphoaluminate cement. Mater de Constr. 2015;65(318):052.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhongwei W. An approach to the recent trends of concrete science and technology. J Chin Ceram Soc. 1979;7:262.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building MaterialsUniversity of JinanJinanChina
  2. 2.School of Civil and environmental EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations