Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 136, Issue 6, pp 2449–2459 | Cite as

Application of copper oxide–thermal oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid on convective heat transfer enhancement in inclined circular tube

  • Farhad HekmatipourEmail author
  • Milad Jalali
Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

The influence of using copper oxide–thermal oil on convective heat transfer and pressure drop in an upward flow in an inclined smooth tube is studied experimentally in this paper. The flow regime and wall temperature are laminar and constant, respectively. The effects of nanofluid, Graetz number, Prandtl number, negative inclination angle on convective heat transfer rate rise moderately with the augmentation of nanoparticles mass concentration. Both correlations are recommended to evaluate Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor in an upward flow under constant wall temperature and laminar flow in smooth pipe. The maximum deviations are 19% and 21%, respectively, which are acceptable for scientific research to be used in industrial applications. Accompaniment of heat transfer ratio with pumping power ratio is presented in this paper. If the increment of pressure drop is more than heat transfer enhancement, it will not be appropriate to use CuO–thermal oil, negative inclination angles and smooth tube. The figure of merit increases up to 1.58% which is calculated with 1.5% nanoparticle mass concentration and inclination angle of 30° at Prandtl number of 387. The results show that most of the values are more than unity, so the heat transfer enhancement is more than increment of pressure drop.

Keywords

Nanofluid Pressure drop Convective heat transfer Upward flow Laminar flow 

List of symbols

Cp

Specific heat capacity/kJ kg−1 K−1

f

Darcy friction factor/\(\pi^{2} \rho D^{5} \Delta P\, 2L\dot{m}^{2}\)

Gz

Graetz number/Re Pr D/L

h

Convection coefficient/W/m2 K

K

Thermal conductivity/W/m K

\(\dot{m}\)

Mass flow rate/kg s

N

Number of fins

Nu

Nusselt number/h k

Pr

Prandtl number/μCp k

\(\dot{Q}\)

Flow rate/m3 s

Re

Reynolds number/ρuD μ

T

Temperature/K

\(\Delta P\)

Pressure drop/Pa

U

Uncertainty/%

z

The height of fin/m

Greek symbols

ϑ

Dynamic viscosity/m3 s

FOM

Figure of merit

ρ

Density/kg m3

\(\Delta \rho\)

Density difference/kg m3

θ

Inclination of tubes/°

φ

Nanoparticles mass concentration/%

Ω

Pumping power/W

Subscripts

b

Characteristics of fluid at average bulk temperature

bf

Base fluid

b, o

Bulk outlet

b, i

Bulk inlet

exp

Experimental values

nf

Nanofluid

w

Appraised at the wall conditions

References

  1. 1.
    Asadi A, Asadi M, Rezaniakolaei A, Rosendahl LA, Afrand M, Wongwises S. Heat transfer efficiency of Al2O3-MWCNT/thermal oil hybrid nanofluid as cooling fluid in thermal and energy management applications: an experimental and theoretical investigation. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2018;117:474–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.10.036.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wei B, Zou C, Yuan X, Li X. Thermo-physical properties evaluation of diathermic oil based hybrid nanofluids for heat transfer application. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2017;107:281–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.11.044.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amir A, Shanbedi M, Yamand H, Azani HK, Gharehkhani S, Montazer E, Sadri R, Sarsam W, Chew BT, Kazi SN. Laminar convective heat transfer of hexylamine-treated MWCNTs-based turbine oil nanofluid. Energy Convers Manag. 2015;105:355–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.07.066.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dastmalchi M, Arefmanesh A, Sheikhzadeh GA. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop of heat transfer oil in smooth and micro-finned tubes. Int J Therm Sci. 2017;121:294–304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2017.07.027.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li W, Zou C, Li X. Thermo-physical properties of waste cooking oil-based nanofluid. Appl Therm Eng. 2016;112:784–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.136.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asadi A, Asadi M, Rezaniakolaei A, Rosendahi LA. An experimental and theoretical investigation on heat transfer capability of Mg (OH)/MWCNT-engine oil hybrid nano-lubricant adopted as a coolant and lubricant fluid. Appl Therm Eng. 2018;129:577–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.10.074.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ilyas SU, Pendyala R, Narahari M. Rheological behaviour of mechanically stabilized and surfactant-free MWCNT-thermal oil-based nanofluid. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer. 2017;87:250–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2017.07.015.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ambreen T, Kim M-H. Heat transfer and pressure drop correlation of nanofluid: a state of art of art review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018;91:564–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.108.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ilyas SU, Pendyala R, Narahri M. Experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer characteristics in MWCNT-thermal oil nanofluid. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7546-7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rashidi S, Eskandarian M, Mahian O, Poncet S. Combination of nanofluid and inserts for heat transfer enhancement. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7070-9.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jafaryar M, Sheikholeslami M, Li Z. Nanofluid turbulent flow in a pipe under the effect of twisted tape with alternate axis. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7093-2.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akbari OA, Hassanzadeh Afrouzi H, Marzban A, Toghraie D. Investigation of volume fraction of nanoparticles effect and aspect ratio of the twisted tape in the tube. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;129(3):1911–22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-017-6372-7.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hashemi SM, Akhavan-Behabadi MA. An empirical study on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of CuO-base oil nanofluid flow in a horizontal helically coiled tube under constant. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2012;39(1):144–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2011.09.002.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mirfendereski S, Abbassi A, Saffar-avval M. Experimental and numerical investigation of nanofluid heat transfer in helically coiled tubes at constant wall heat flux. Adv Powder Technol. 2015;26(5):1483–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2015.08.006.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fakoor Pakdaman M, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Razi P. An experimental investigation on thermos-physical properties and overall performance of MWCNT/heat transfer oil nanofluid flow inside vertical helically coiled tubes. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2012;40:103–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.02.005.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hekmatipour F, Jalali M, Hekmatipour F, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Sajadi B. On the convection heat transfer and pressure drop of copper oxide-heat transfer oil nanofluid in inclined microfin tube. Heat Mass Transf. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00231-018-2417-0.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zeinali Heris S, Hassan TH, Noie SH, Sardarabadi H, Sardarabadi M. Laminar convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid through square cross-sectional duct. Int J Heat Fluid Flow. 2013;44:375–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2013.07.006.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Razi P, Akavan-Behabadi MA, Saeedinia M. Pressure drop and thermal characteristics of CuO-base oil nanofluid laminar flow in flattened tubes under constant heat flux. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2011;38(7):964–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2011.04.010.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ashtiani D, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Fakoor Pakdaman M. An experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics of multi-walled CNT-heat transfer oil nanofluid flow inside flattened tubes under uniform wall temperature condition. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2012;39(9):1404–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2012.07.017.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jafarimoghaddam A, Aberoumand S, Javaherdeh K, Abbassian Arani AA. Al/oil nanofluid inside annular tube: an experimental study on convective heat transfer and pressure drop. Heat Mass Transf. 2018;54(4):1053–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00231-017-2199-9.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jafarimoghaddam A, Aberoumand S, Aberouman H, Javaherdeh K. Experimental study on Cu/Oil nanofluids through concentric annular tube: a correlation. Heat Transf Asian Res. 2017;46(3):251–60.  https://doi.org/10.1002/htj.21210.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Hekmatipour F, Sajadi B. An empirical study on the mixed convection transfer and pressure drop of HTO/CuO nanofluid in inclined tube. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2016;78:10–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2016.04.028.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hekmatipour F, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Sajadi B, Fkoor-Pakdaman M. Mixed convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the copper oxide-heat transfer oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid in vertical tube. Case Stud Therm Eng. 2017;10:532–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2017.09.009.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Derakhshan MM, Akhavan-Behabadi MA. Mixed convection of MWCNT-heat transfer oil nanofluid inside inclined plain and microfin tubes under laminar assisted flow. Int J Therm Sci. 2016;99:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2015.07.025.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ben Mansour R, Galanis N, Nguyen CT. Experimental study of mixed convection with water-Al2O3 nanofluid in inclined tube with uniform wall heat flux. Int J Therm Sci. 2011;50(3):403–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2010.03.016.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Derakhshan MM, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Mohseni SG. Experimental on mixed convection heat transfer and performance evaluation of MWCNT-Oil nanofluid flow in horizontal and vertical microfin tubes. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2015;61:241–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2014.11.005.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zeinali Heris S, Farzin F, Sardarabadi H. Experimental comparison among thermal characteristics of three metal oxide nanoparticles/turbine oil-based nanofluids under laminar flow regime. Int J Thermophys. 2015;36(4):760–82.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-015-1852-0.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zeinali Heris S, Nasr Esfahany M, Etemad G. Investigation of CuO/water nanofluid laminar convective heat transfer through a circular tube. J Enhanc Heat Transf. 2006;13(4):279–89.  https://doi.org/10.1615/JEnhHeatTransf.v13.i4.10.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Farzin F, Zeinali Heris S, Rahimi S. laminar convective heat transfer and pressure drop of TiO2/Turbine oil nanofluid. J Thermophys Heat Transf. 2013;27(1):127–33.  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.T3935.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zeniali Heris S, Gh Etemad S, Esfahany MN. Convective heat transfer of Cu/Water nanofluid flowing through a circular tube. Exp Heat Transf. 2009;22:217–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08916150902950145.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ben Mansour R, Galanis N, Nguyen CT. Developing laminar mixed convection of nanofluids inclined tube with uniform wall heat flux. Int J Numer Methods Heat Fluid Flow. 2009;19(2):146–64.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09615530910930946.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mansour RB, Galanis N, Nguyen CT. Experimental study on mixed convection with water–Al2O3 nanofluid in inclined tube with uniform wall heat flux. Int J Therm Sci. 2011;50(3):403–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2010.03.016.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Akhavan- Behabadi MA, Hekmatipour F, Mirhabibi SM, Sajadi B. Experimental investigation of thermal-rheological properties and heat transfer behaviour of the heat transfer oil-copper oxide (HTO- CuO) nanofluid in smooth tubes. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2015;68:681–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.07.008.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lorenzini M, Morini GL, Henning T, Brandnet J. Uncertainty assessment in friction factor measurements as a tool to design experimental set-ups. Int J Therm Sci. 2008;48:282–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2008.06.006.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
    Rea U, McKrell T, Hu L-W, Buongiorno J. Laminar convective heat transfer and viscous pressure loss of alumina–water nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2009;52:2042–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2008.10.025.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ranjbarzadeh R, Karimipour A, Afrand M, Isfahani AHM, Shirneshan A. Empirical analysis of heat transfer and friction factor of water/graphene oxide nanofluid flow in turbulent regime through an isothermal pipe. Appl Therm Eng. 2017;126:538–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.07.189.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meyer JP, McKrell TJ, Grote K. The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on single heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in the transitional flow regime of smooth tubes. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2013;58:597–609.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.11.074.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ferrouillat S, Bontemps A, Ribeiro J-P, Gruss J-A, Soriano O. Hydraulic and heat transfer study of SiO2/water nanofluids in horizontal tubes with imposed wall temperature boundary conditions. Int J Heat Fluid Flow. 2011;32:424–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2011.01.003.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sarkar JA. Critical review on convective heat transfer correlations of nanofluids. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2011;15:3271–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.025.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bergman TL, Lavine AS, Incropera FP, Dewitt DP. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. 7th ed. Hoboken: Willey; 2011.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saeedinia M, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Nasr M. Experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop of nanofluid flow in horizontal coiled wire inserted tube under constant heat flux. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2012;36:158–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2011.09.009.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Feng Z-Z, Li W. Laminar mixed convection of large-Prandtl-number in-tube nanofluid flow, Part I: experimental study. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2013;65:919–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.07.005.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Li W, Feng Z-Z. Laminar mixed convection of large-Prandtl-number in-tube nanofluid flow, Part II: correlations. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2013;65:928–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.07.006.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brown AR, Thomas MA. Combined free and forced convection heat transfer for laminar flow in horizontal tubes. Ins Mech Eng. 1965;7(4):440.  https://doi.org/10.1243/JMES_JOUR_1965_007_066_02.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Anoop KB, Sundararajn T, Das SK. Effect of particle size on the convection heat transfer in nanofluid in the developing region. Int J Heat Mass Transf. 2009;52:2189–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007.11.063.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Moffat RJ. Describing the uncertainties in experimental result. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 1988;1(1):3–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0894-1777(88)90043-X.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gupta M, Arora N, Kumar R, Kumar S, Dilbaghi N. A comprehensive review of experimental investigations of forced convective heat transfer characteristics for various nanofluid. Int J Mech Mater Eng. 2014;9:11–32.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40712-014-0011-x.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kahani M, Zeinali Heris S, Mousavi SM. Comparative study between metal oxide nanoparticles on thermal characteristics of nanofluid flow through helical coils. Powder Technol. 2013;246:82–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2013.05.010.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wongcharee K, Eiamsa-ard S. Enhancement of heat transfer using CuO/water nanofluid and twisted tape with alternative axis. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2011;38:742–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2011.03.011.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ho CJ, Chen WC, Yan WM. Experimental study on cooling performance of minichannel heat sink using water-based MEPCM particle. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf. 2013;48:67–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2013.08.023.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Routbort JL, Singh D, Timofeeva EV, France DM. Pumping power of nanofluid in flowing system. J Nanopart Res. 2011;13:931–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-010-0197-7.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Choudhury D, Pantakar SV. Combined forced and free laminar convection in the entrance region of an inclined isothermal tube. J Heat Transfer. 1988;110(4a):901–9.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3250591.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy and Environment, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of PhysicsSemnan UniversitySemnanIran

Personalised recommendations