Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 134, Issue 3, pp 1681–1703 | Cite as

Synergistic effect of exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets and non-halogen flame retardants on flame retardancy and thermal properties of kenaf flour-PP nanocomposites

  • Christopher Igwe Idumah
  • Azman HassanEmail author
  • Serge Bourbigot


A series of quaternary hybrid kenaf (K) flour-PP nanocomposites, such as PP/KF/MAPP/GNP/MgOH (K-GNP-MgOH), PP/KF/MAPP/GNP/APP (K-GNP-APP) and PP/KF/MAPP/GNP/MgO (K-GNP-MgO) filled with exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (GNP)-3 phr acting as adjuvant in combination with mineral flame retardants, 20 mass/% magnesium hydroxide (Mg (OH)2) and 20 mass/% magnesium oxide (MgO), and 20 mass/% intumescent ammonium polyphosphate (APP), respectively, were prepared through melt extrusion using co-rotating twin screw extruder. The resulting quaternary nanocomposites were characterized in terms of flame retardancy, thermomechanical, thermal conductivity, thermal behavior, heat deflection temperature (HDT), and mechanical, morphological and structural properties. Mass loss calorimeter data revealed a significant reduction of peak heat release rate, total heat release, effective heat of combustion, mass loss rate and delayed time to ignition due to GNP-MgOH, GNP-MgO and GNP-APP synergistic mechanism in hybrid nanocomposites, respectively. The effective thermal conductivities and HDT of quaternary nanocomposites were found to significantly increase. DSC results revealed enhanced crystallization temperatures with reduced degree of crystallinity, while melting points remained stable.


Graphene Flame retardancy Thermal analysis Extrusion 



The authors wish to acknowledge the management of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Head of Research Group R2 Fire Unité Matériaux et Transformations (UMET) - CNRS UMR 8207 Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL) Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France, for providing facilities for the success of this research.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Igwe Idumah
    • 1
    • 2
  • Azman Hassan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Serge Bourbigot
    • 3
  1. 1.Enhanced Polymer Research Group, Faculty of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  2. 2.Ebonyi State UniversityAbakalikiNigeria
  3. 3.Head of Research Group R2Fire, Unité Matériaux et Transformations (UMET) - CNRS UMR 8207Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL)Villeneuve d’Ascq CedexFrance

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