Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 134, Issue 3, pp 2287–2294 | Cite as

New experimental correlation for the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs-SiO2/water-EG in various solid volume fractions and temperatures

  • Masoud Shayan
  • Mohammad AkbariEmail author
Article

Abstract

In recent years, studies on rheological behavior and heat transfer of nanofluids have been greatly increased and results show significant progress in this field. In this study, thermal conductivity of nanofluid consisting of SiO2 and MWCNTs suspended in water and ethylene glycol as the base fluid was experimentally studied. Using nanofluid in energy systems is going to spread more day after day, therefore, measuring its properties has significant importance. To do so 50:50 mass fraction of SiO2 and MWCNTs nanoparticles has been dispersed in water and ethylene glycol (60–40) with various solid volume fractions (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%) in different temperatures from 25 to 50 °C. Nanoparticles were suspended in base fluid using the two-stage method. Results suggest that the thermal conductivity of nanofluid is higher than the base fluid and the changes have a direct relation with increase or decrease of solid volume fraction and temperature. The highest increase in thermal conductivity occurred in solid volume fraction of 1% in a temperature between 25 and 50 °C amounting 13.1% and in a temperature of 50 °C and solid volume fraction between 0 and 1% was 29.8%. Eventually, a relation provided based on solid volume fraction and temperature. Margin of deviation in this relation is less than 1.9% that demonstrated the good accuracy.

Keywords

Nanofluid Solid volume fraction Temperature Thermal conductivity Carbon nanotube 

References

  1. 1.
    Boothroyd R, Haque H. Fully developed heat transfer to a gaseous suspension of particles flowing turbulently in ducts of different size. J Mech Eng Sci. 1970;12(1):191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pourfattah F, Motamedian M, Sheikhzadeh G, Toghraie D, Akbari OA. The numerical investigation of angle of attack of inclined rectangular rib on the turbulent heat transfer of Water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a tube. Int J Mech Sci. 2017;131:1106–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heydari M, Toghraie D, Akbari OA. The effect of semi-attached and offset mid-truncated ribs and Water/TiO2 nanofluid on flow and heat transfer properties in a triangular microchannel. Therm Sci Eng Prog. 2017;2:140–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rezaei O, Akbari OA, Marzban A, Toghraie D, Pourfattah F, Mashayekhi R. The numerical investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop of turbulent flow in a triangular microchannel. Phys E Low Dimens Syst Nanostructures. 2017;93:179–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zareie A, Akbari M. Hybrid nanoparticles effects on rheological behavior of water-EG coolant under different temperatures: an experimental study. J Mol Liq. 2017;230:408–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nadooshan AA, Eshgarf H, Afrand M. Measuring the viscosity of Fe3O4-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluid for evaluation of thermal efficiency: Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. J Mol Liq. 2018;253:169–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hemmat Esfe M, Firouzi M, Rostamian H, Afrand M. Prediction and optimization of thermophysical properties of stabilized Al2O3/antifreeze nanofluids using response surface methodology. J Mol Liq. 2018;261:14–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Choi SUS. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. Dev Appl Non Newton Flows. 1995;231:99–105.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maxwell JC. Treatise on electricity and magnetism, vol. 1. 1954. p. 20–60.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Masuda H, Ebata A, Teramae K. Alteration of thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid by dispersing ultra-fine particles. Netsu Bussei. 1993;7:227–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang X, Xu X, Choi SUS. Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle-fluid mixture. J Thermophys Heat Tr. 1999;13:474–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chopkar M, Das PK, Manna I. Synthesis and characterization of nanofluid of advanced heat transfer applications. Scripta Mater. 2006;55:549–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murshed SMS, Leong KC, Yang C. A combined model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Appl Therm Eng. 2009;29:2477–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Choi S, Zhang Z, Yu W, Lockwood F, Grulke E. Anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement in nanotube suspensions. Appl Phys Lett. 2001;79:2252–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li CH, Peterson G. The effect of particle size on the effective thermal conductivity of Al2O3-water nanofluids. J Appl Phys. 2007;101:44312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sundar LS, Farooky MH, Sarada SN, Singh MK. Experimental thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol and water mixture based low volume concentration of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer. 2013;41:41–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee S, Choi SS, Li S, Eastman J. Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles. J Heat Transf. 1999;121:280–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xing M, Yu J, Wang R. Experimental study on the thermal conductivity enhancement of water based nanofluids using different types of carbon nanotubes. Int J Heat Mass Transfer. 2015;88:609–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xie HQ, Wang JC, Xi TG, Liu Y. Thermal conductivity of suspensions containing nanosized SiC particles. Int J Thermophys. 2002;23:571–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murshed S, Leong K, Yang C. Enhanced thermal conductivity of TiO2 water based nanofluids. Int J Therm Sci. 2005;44:367–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Das SK, Putra N, Thiesen P, Roetzel W. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement for Nanofluids. J Heat Transf. 2003;125:567–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karthik R, Harish Nagarajan R, Raja B, Damodharan P. Thermal conductivity of CuO–DI water nanofluids using 3-ω measurement technique in a suspended micro-wire. Exp Therm Fluid Sci. 2012;40:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fedele L, Colla L, Bobbo S. Viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements of water-based nanofluids containing titanium oxide nanoparticles. Int J Refrig. 2012;35:1359–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chon CH, Kihm KD. Thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids by Brownian Motion. J Heat Transf. 2005;127:810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hemmat Esfe M, Saedodin S, Mahian O, Wongwises S. Thermal conductivity of Al2O3/water nanofluids. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2014;117:675–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hemmat Esfe M, Saedodin S, Wongwises S, Toghraie D. An experimental study on the effect of diameter on thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of Fe/water nanofluids. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;119:1817–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Afrand M, Toghraie D, Sina N. Experimental study on thermal conductivity of water based Fe3O4 nanofluid: development of a new correlation and modeled by artificial neural network. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer. 2016;75:262–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ahmadi Esfahani M, Toghraie D. Experimental investigation for developing a new model for the thermal conductivity of silica/water-ethylene glycol (40%–60%) nanofluid at different temperatures and solid volume fractions. J Mol Liq. 2017;232:105–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hemmat Esfe M, Hassani Ahangar MR, Toghraie D, Hajmohammad MH, Rostamian H, Tourang H. Designing artificial neural network on thermal conductivity of Al2O3–water–EG (60–40%) nanofluid using experimental data. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;126:837–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nasajpour Esfahani N, Toghraie D, Afrand M. A new correlation for predicting the thermal conductivity of ZnO–Ag (50%–50%)/water hybrid nanofluid: an experimental study. Powder Techno. 2018;323:367–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Deris Zadeh A, Toghraie D. Experimental investigation for developing a new model for the dynamic viscosity of silver/ethylene glycol nanofluid at different temperatures and solid volume fractions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;131:1449–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Afshari A, Akbari M, Toghraie D, Eftekhari Yazdi M. Experimental investigation of rheological behavior of the hybrid nanofluid of MWCNT–alumina/water (80%)–ethylene-glycol (20%). J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;132:1001–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kakavandi A, Akbari M. Experimental investigation of thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing of hybrid nanoparticles suspended in binary base fluids and propose a new correlation. Int J Heat Mass Transfer. 2018;124:742–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Arabpour A, Karimipour A, Toghraie D. The study of heat transfer and laminar flow of kerosene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanofluid in the microchannel heat sink with slip boundary condition. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018;131:1553–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hemmat Esfe M, Rostamian H, Toghraie D, Yan WM. Using artificial neural network to predict thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol with alumina nanoparticle. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;126:643–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhomeinishahrIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityNajafabadIran

Personalised recommendations