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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 136, Issue 1, pp 211–222 | Cite as

Heat transfer performance of a compact loop heat pipe with alumina and silver nanofluid

A comparative study
  • Emerald Ninolin Stephen
  • Lazarus Godson AsirvathamEmail author
  • Ramachandran Kandasamy
  • Brusly Solomon
  • Gnana Sundari Kondru
Article

Abstract

The heat transfer performance and entropy analysis are done in a compact loop heat pipe (CLHP) with Al2O3/water and Ag/water nanofluid. A compact loop heat pipe having a flat square evaporator with dimensions of 34 mm (L) × 34 mm (W) × 19 mm (H) has been fabricated and tested for the heat load ranging from 30 to 500 W. The experimental tests are conducted by keeping the CLHP in the vertical orientation with distilled water, silver (Ag)/water and aluminium oxide (Al2O3)/water nanofluid having low volume concentrations of (0.09% and 0.12%). The effect of wall and vapour temperature, evaporator and condenser heat transfer coefficient, thermal resistance on the applied heat loads is experimentally investigated and compared. The experimental results showed that the evaporator thermal resistance is reduced by 34.70% and 20.21%, respectively, for 0.12 vol% of Ag, Al2O3 nanoparticles when compared with that of the distilled water. For the same volume concentrations of Ag, Al2O3 nanoparticles, an enhancement of 34.52%, 23.7%, 39.27% and 30.8%, respectively, observed for the convective heat transfer coefficients at the evaporator and condenser. The entropy is also reduced by 19.08% and 11.58% when Ag and Al2O3 nanofluids are used as the operating fluid. From the experimental tests, it is found that the addition of small amount of Ag nanoparticles in the working fluid enhanced the operating range by 15% when compared with that of Al2O3/water nanofluid without the occurrence of any dry-out conditions.

Keywords

Loop heat pipe Electronic cooling Heat transfer Nanofluid Silver Aluminium oxide nanoparticles 

Abbreviations

A

Surface area

Ag

Silver

Al2O3

Aluminium oxide

C

Centigrade

c

Specific heat of cooling water

CLHP

Compact loop heat pipe

Cu

Copper

CuO

Copper oxide

DC

Direct current

DI

Deionised water

H

Height

h

Heat transfer coefficient

HTC

Heat transfer coefficient

I

Current

K

Kelvin

kHz

Kilo Hertz

L

Length

LHP

Loop heat pipe

LPH

Litres per hour

M

Meter

m·

Mass flow rate

min

Minutes

mLHP

Miniature loop heat pipe

mm

Millimetre

nm

Nanometre

Q

Applied heat load

Qc

Heat rejected at condenser

R

Resistance

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

Sht

Entropy generation due to heat transfer

Sll

Entropy generation in liquid line

Svl

Entropy generation in vapour line

T

Temperature

TiO2

Titanium oxide

V

Voltage

W

Width

wt

Weight

ΔP

Pressure difference

η

Efficiency

ρ

Density

Subscripts

e

Evaporator

c

Condenser

w

Water

ve

Vapour evaporator

vc

Vapour condenser

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the funding agency, the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), (SB/FTP/ETA-362/2012), New Delhi, India. They also would like to thank Mr. R. Jaya Seelan, Mr. Y. Selvin Raja and Mr. T. Stephen Sundersingh for all the assistance they have given during this study.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKarunya Institute of Technology and SciencesCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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