Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 134, Issue 3, pp 2317–2327 | Cite as

Experimental investigation on combustion characteristics of steel cable for cable-stayed bridge

  • Changkun ChenEmail author
  • Jie Chen
  • Xiaolong Zhao
  • Congling ShiEmail author
Article
  • 90 Downloads

Abstract

Inspired by a serious fire accident on the cable-stayed bridge, the characteristics of this type of cable fire were investigated pertinently with experiment. And some important parameters, such as temperature distribution and flame height, were measured. The behaviors of fire growth and fire propagation were analyzed; furthermore, fire spread rate was obtained. Additionally, the effectiveness of fire extinguishing methods used in such cable fires was also examined. The results show that the special cables layout and material composition seriously influenced fire behaviors. When internal steel strands were ignited, the polyethylene material on its surface would melt and drop at high temperature, causing that external burning drops penetrated into the interior, which could gradually ignite the unburned part and flaring up the fire. The HDPE sheath originally as a protected component, once ignited, would generate a large amount of burning molten drops, dramatically promoting the fire development to the underneath cable. As observed in fire extinguishing experiments, dry powder, one method recommended by NFPA, showed a re-ignition phenomenon. By comparison, water, one method deprecated in standard, contrarily brought about good effects in fire extinguishing due to an effective cooling effects for inner steel.

Keywords

Cable-stayed bridge Fire propagation HDPE sheath Fire extinguishing Re-ignition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 51576212, 71790613 and 51622403. The authors appreciate the supports deeply.

References

  1. 1.
    Theodore P. Zoli, Justin Steinhouse, Some considerations in the design of long span bridges against progressive collapse. In: Proceedings of the 23rd US-Japan Bridge Engineering Workshop, Tsukuba, Japan, 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garlock M, Paya-Zaforteza I, Kodur V, Gu L. Fire hazard in bridges: review, assessment and repair strategies. Eng Struct. 2012;35:89–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spencer TYLS, Quiel E. A streamlined framework for calculating the response of steel-supported bridges to open-air tanker truck fires. Fire Saf J. 2015;73:63–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kodur VKR, Naser MZ. Importance factor for design of bridges against fire hazard. Eng Struct. 2013;54:207–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alos-Moya J, Paya-Zaforteza I, Garlock M, Loma-Ossorio E, Schiffner D. Analysis of a bridge failure due to fire using computational fluid dynamics and finite element models. Eng Struct. 2014;68:96–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Payá-Zaforteza I, Garlock MEM. A numerical investigation on the fire response of a steel girder bridge. J Constr Steel Res. 2012;75:93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vimonsatit V, Tan KH, Qian ZH. Testing of plate girder web panel loaded in shear at elevated temperature. J Struct Eng. 2007;133:815–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kodur V, Aziz E, Dwaikat M. Evaluating fire resistance of steel girders in bridges. J Bridge Eng. 2013;18:633–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aziz EM, Kodur VK, Glassman JD, Moreyra Garlock ME. Behavior of steel bridge girders under fire conditions. J Constr Steel Res. 2015;106:11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bennetts I, Moinuddin K. Evaluation of the impact of potential fire scenarios on structural elements of a cable-stayed bridge. J Fire Prot Eng. 2009;19:85–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Quiel, T. Yokoyama, K. Mueller, L. Bregman, S. Marjanishvili, Mitigating the effects of a tanker truck fire on a cable-stayed bridge. In: International Conference on Performance-based and Life-cycle Struct Engineering, 2015, pp. 1002–1012.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gong X AAK. Safety of cable-supported bridges during fire hazards. J Bridge Eng. 2016;21(4):04015082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Babrauskas V. Mechanisms and modes for ignition of low-voltage, PVC-insulated electrotechnical products. Fire Mater. 2006;30:151–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Babrauskas V. Mechanisms and modes for ignition of low-voltage, PVC-insulated electrotechnical products. Fire Mater. 2006;30:151–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hirschler MM. Flame retardants and heat release: review of traditional studies on products and on groups of polymers. Fire Mater. 2015;39:207–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hees PV, Axelsson J, Green AM, Grayson SJ. Mathematical modelling of fire development in cable installations. Fire Mater. 2001;25:169–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grayson SJ, Van Hees P, Green AM, Breulet H, Vercellotti U. Assessing the fire performance of electric cables (FIPEC). Fire Mater. 2001;25:49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nam S RJDP. From bench-scale test data to predictors of full- scale fire test results. Fire Sci Technol. 2005;8:469–80.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li L, Huang X, Bi K, Liu X. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays. Nucl Eng Des. 2016;301:32–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Martinka, P. Rantuch, J. Sulová, F. Martinka, Assessing the fire risk of electrical cables using a cone calorimeter. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang Y, Zhang S, Wu X, Lu C, Cai Y, Ma L, Shi G, Yang L. Effect of montmorillonite on the flame-resistant and mechanical properties of intumescent flame-retardant poly(butylene succinate) composites. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;128:1417–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu L, Zhao X, Ma C, Chen X, Li S, Jiao C. Smoke suppression properties of carbon black on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;126:1821–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Makhlouf G, Hassan M, Nour M, Abdel-Monem YK, Abdelkhalik A. Evaluation of fire performance of linear low-density polyethylene containing novel intumescent flame retardant. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130:1031–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Makhlouf G, Hassan M, Nour M, Abdelmonem Y, Abdelkhalik A. A novel intumescent flame retardant: synthesis and its application for linear low-density polyethylene. Arab J Sci Eng. 2017;42:4339–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Disaster Prevention Science and Safety Technology, Central South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Metro Fire and Passenger Transportation SafetyChina Academy of Safety Science and TechnologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations