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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 134, Issue 3, pp 2137–2145 | Cite as

Biomass residue characterization for their potential application as biofuels

  • Mudasir Akbar Shah
  • M. N. S. Khan
  • Vimal Kumar
Article

Abstract

A detailed understanding of chemical composition and thermal degradation behavior is very important for a biomass before processing it into a pyrolysis or gasification unit for energy production. In the present work, the physico- and thermo-chemical characterization of four different types of walnut shells (PSW, TSW, MSW and HSW) is carried out to evaluate their application as furnace oil. The thermal degradation behavior during the thermal decomposition of different walnut shells (WS) samples is studied using thermogravimetric analysis at three different heating rates (5, 10 and 15 °C min−1). It is observed that the complete moisture removal is below 152 °C, and the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass is occurred between ≈ 250 to ≈ 400 °C in the oxidizing atmosphere. For all different WS samples, the heating values are observed in the range of 13.8–18.4 MJ kg−1, which is comparable to the wood waste and lignite coal. The cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives in walnut shell are found to vary from 32.3 to 34.5, 21 to 27, 39 to 43 and 1.4 to 1.7%, respectively. The functional characterization of different WS is carried out using FTIR, and the most prominent FTIR band peak has been found at wave numbers of 3400, 2931, 1420 and 1050 cm−1, which is due to the stretching vibrations of –OH, CH–, aromatic C=C, and aliphatic ether and alcohol groups, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the rough texture and heterogeneous structures of biomass. Further, the X-ray diffraction analysis showed the crystalline structure, which is due to the presence of cellulose. Therefore, it can be concluded that the walnut shell is a potential candidate for energy generation through thermo-chemical conversion.

Keywords

Walnut shell Proximate and ultimate analysis Higher heating values Thermogravimetric analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge to Sophisticated Test & Instrumentation Centre (SAIF), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala, India, for analyzing various biomass. We greatly appreciate the financial support provided by Minister of Human Resources Department (MHRD), Govt. of India. The authors also thankful to the Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, and Department of Chemical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

Supplementary material

10973_2018_7560_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (138 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 138 kb)

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology SrinagarSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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