Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 134, Issue 3, pp 1785–1797 | Cite as

Thermal study of the decomposition of HTPB hybrid rocket fuel in the presence of azo-tetrazolate-based high nitrogen content high energy materials

  • Muntaha A. Yousef
  • M. Keith HudsonEmail author
Article

Abstract

Azo-tetrazolate salts and their derivatives have identical negatively charged conjugated nitrogen rings and two varied positively charged cations. The varied cations are guanidinium, aminoguanidinium, diaminoguanidinium, triaminoguanidinium and ammonium. Azo-tetrazolate salts and their derivatives were synthesized and fully characterized by multinuclear spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) has been used as a fuel and/or binder for devices such as hybrid and solid rockets. Present-day work on HTPB includes studying its thermal decomposition in the presence and absence of energetic material. Varying concentrations of energetic materials were used to create samples of crosslinked HTPB, which were utilized for the analysis. Different percentages (10, 15, 20%) by mass of azo-tetrazolate-based high nitrogen materials were used. Crosslinking agent polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate (PAPI) was added to the polybutadiene R45-M resin and was maintained at 15% by mass in all samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) were performed to investigate the effect of additives. This is carried out within an atmospheric air setting at a heating rate of 5 °C/min. Plain HTPB has three exothermic peaks under air, with the first occurring at 206.82 °C, the second peak at 350 °C and the third peak beginning (onset) at 421.67 °C. Total decomposition of the mixtures is exhibited by the third exothermic peak, which ends at 600 °C. The effect of mixing these high energy compounds was determined using TG and DSC. Indications are that the resulting high energy compound/HTPB mixtures may provide a better performing fuel for future hybrid rocket formulations.

Keywords

Hybrid rocket Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) Fuel regression rate Thermal decomposition Azo-tetrazolate and high energy nitrogen compounds 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support from the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium (ASGC) (NASA award NNX15AR71H) in the form of a Research Infrastructure Award and multiple years STEM awards for Dr. Yousef is gratefully acknowledged. We thank the UA Little Rock Nanotech Center for use of the Thermal Laboratory and its TG and DSC equipment. Thank you to Drs. Fumiya Watanabe, Omar Abdulrazzaq, Shawn Bourdo and Viney Saini for their assistance. Ms. Missy Hill and Ms. Laura Holland were very helpful to Dr. Yousef during her studies. This work was partially presented at the 2016 ACS National Convention (Philadelphia), 2016 UA Little Rock Research EXPO, and at the 2016 Arkansas Space Grant Consortium 2016 Annual Symposium.

References

  1. 1.
    Shanks R, Hudson MK. A labscale hybrid rocket motor for instrumentation studies. J Pyrotech. 2000;11:1–10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wei L. Simulation of combustion of hybrid rocket fuel. A doctoral dissertation, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, 2004.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Altman D. Hybrid rocket development history. In: AIAA paper 1991. pp. 1991–2515.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shanks RB. A labscale rocket motor and facility for plume diagnostics and combustion studies. A doctoral dissertation, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1994.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moore GE, Berman K. A solid–liquid rocket propellant system. Jet Propuls. 1956;26:965–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mahanta AK, Pathak DD. HTPB-polyurethane: a versatile fuel binder for composite solid propellant. Polyurethane. 2012.  https://doi.org/10.5772/47995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCreedy K, Keskkula H. Effect of thermal crosslinking on decomposition of polybutadiene. Polymer. 1979;20:1155–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ahlblad G, Reitberger T, Terselius B, Stenberg B. Thermal oxidation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene rubber I. Chemiluminescence studies. Polym Degrad Stab. 1999;65:179–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abusaidi H, Ghaieni HR, Pourmortazavi SM, Motamed-Shariati SH. Effect of nitro content on thermal stability and decomposition kinetics of nitro-HTPB. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;124(2):935–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abusaidi H, Ghaieni HR. Thermal analysis and kinetic decomposition of nitro-functionalized hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene bonded explosive. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;2017(127):2301–6.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lu Y-C, Kuo KK. Thermal decomposition study of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) solid fuel. Thermochimica Acta. 1996;275:181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hudson MK, Wright AM, Luchini C, Wynne PC, Rooke S. Guanidinium azo-tetrazolate (GAT) as a high performance hybrid rocket fuel additive. J Pyrotech. 2004;19:37–42.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wright AM, Wynne PC, Rooke S, Hudson MK, Strong M. Hybrid rocket regression rate study of amino Guanidinium azo-tetrazolate. AIAA Technical Paper 1991-2515; 1991.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sinha YK, Sridhar BTN, Santhosh M. Thermal decomposition study of HTPB solid fuel in the presence of activated charcoal and paraffin. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015;119:557–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hiskey MA, Goldman N, Stine JR. High-nitrogen energetic materials derived from azotetrazolate. J Energy Mater. 1998;16:119–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yousef Muntaha A, Keith HM, Berry BC. Study on the compatibility of azo-tetrazolate high energy materials using DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7221-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cheng Z, Zhang G, Fan X, Bi F, Zhao F, Zhang W, Gao Z. Synthesis, characterization, migration and catalytic effects of energetic ionic ferrocene compounds on thermal decomposition of main components of solid propellants. Inorg Chim Acta. 2014;421:191–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hammerl A, Hiskey MA, Holl G, Klapoetke TM, Polborn K, Stierstorfer J, Weigand JJ. Azidoformamidinium and guanidinium 5,5′-azotetrazolate salts. Chem Mater. 2005;17:3784–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ninan KN, Krishnan K, Rajeev R, Viswanathan G. Thermoanalytical investigations on the effect of atmospheric oxygen on HTPB resin. Propellants Explos Pyrotech. 1996;21:199–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marino G, Chierice G, Pinheiro C, Souza A. Thermal decomposition of metallic diethanoldithiocarbamate complexes. Thermochim Acta. 1999;328:209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Du T. Thermal decomposition studies of solid propellant binder HTPB. Thermochim Acta. 1989;138:189–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen J, Brill T. Chemistry and kinetics of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and diisocyanate-HTPB polymers during slow decomposition and combustion-like conditions. Combust Flame. 1991;87:217–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sivabalan R, Talawar MB, Senthilkumar N, Kavitha B, Asthana SN. Studies on azotetrazolate based high nitrogen content high energy materials potential additives for rocket propellants. Kluwer Acad Publ. 2004;78:781–92.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Manu S. Glycidyl azide polymer GAP as a high energy polymeric binder for composite solid propellant applications. A doctoral dissertation, Mahatma Gandhi University, India, 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Teague MW, Welborn JR, Felix T, Hudson M, Willis J. UV/vis absorption as a diagnostic for no in rocket plumes. Int J Turbo Jet Eng. 1996;13:211–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Arkansas at Little RockLittle RockUSA

Personalised recommendations