Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 135, Issue 1, pp 751–762 | Cite as

Investigation of nanofluids on heat transfer enhancement in a louvered microchannel with lattice Boltzmann method

  • Tong-Miin LiouEmail author
  • Tzu-Chiao Wei
  • Chun-Sheng Wang


Numerical studies of laminar forced convective heat transfer and fluid flow in a 2D louvered microchannel with Al2O3/water nanofluids are performed by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Eight louvers are arranged in tandem within the single-pass microchannel. The Reynolds number based on channel hydraulic diameter and bulk mean velocity ranges from 100 to 400, where the Al2O3 fraction varies from 0 to 4%. A double distribution function approach is adopted for modeling fluid flow and heat transfer. Code validations are performed by comparing the streamwise Nusselt number (Nu) profiles and Fanning friction factors of the present LBM and those of the analytical solutions. Good agreements are obtained. Simulated results show that the louver microstructure can disturb the core flow and guide coolant toward the heated walls, thus enhancing the heat transfer significantly. Furthermore, the addition of nanoparticles in microchannels can also augment the heat transfer, but it creates an unnoticeable pressure loss. With both the louver microstructure and nanofluid, a maximum overall Nu enhancement of 7.06 is found relative to that of the fully developed smooth channel.


Nanofluids Louver microstructures Microchannel Heat transfer Lattice Boltzmann method 

List of symbols


Discrete lattice velocity vectors


Specific heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)


Dimensionless speed of sound


Particle diameter (m)


Hydraulic diameter, 2H (m)


Fanning friction factor


Average Fanning friction factor


Fanning friction factor for the fully developed laminar flow in two-dimensional smooth channel


Distribution function for velocity


Equilibrium distribution function for velocity


Distribution function for energy


Equilibrium distribution function for velocity


Height of channel (m)


Height of louver microstructures (m)


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Length of channel (m)


Nusselt number


Average Nusselt number


Nusselt number for the fully developed laminar flow in two-dimensional smooth channel


Pressure (Pa)


Prandtl number = ν/α


Reynolds number = ρfumDh/μf


Temperature (K)


Thermal performance factor


Velocity vector (m s−1)


Streamwise velocity component (m s−1)


Transverse velocity component (m s−1)


Weighting factors


Position lattice vectors (m)


Streamwise coordinate (m)


Transverse coordinate (m)


Dimensionless coordinates (x/Dh)


Dimensionless coordinates (y/Dh)

Greek symbols


Thermal diffusion coefficient (m2 s−1)


Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)


Kinematic viscosity (m2 s−1)


Density (kg m−3)


Dimensionless relaxation time for fk


Dimensionless relaxation time for gk


Particle volume fraction



Base fluid















The present study is sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under Contract: MOST105-2221-E-007-058-MY3. The National Center for High-performance Computing is also acknowledged for providing computer resources.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Power Mechanical EngineeringNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan, ROC

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