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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 135, Issue 1, pp 393–418 | Cite as

An overview on the effect of ultrasonication duration on different properties of nanofluids

  • Asif AfzalEmail author
  • Ibrahim Nawfal
  • I. M. Mahbubul
  • Sunil Siddalingappa Kumbar
Article

Abstract

Preparation of nanofluid is of prime importance to obtain better thermal and physical properties. Different preparation parameters used in nanofluid preparation sometimes perform contrarily even if prepared with same nanoparticles and base fluid. Stability, thermal conductivity, and viscosity of the nanofluid are significantly affected by the cluster (agglomerate) size of nanoparticles in the base fluid which deteriorate thermal performance. In order to break the agglomerates and improve the dispersion of nanoparticles, ultrasonication is a more prevalent method. Nanofluids react differently for different sonication time and the reaction of the nanofluid with the change in sonication time varies for different nanofluids, which is dependent on various factors. In this regard, research works pertinent to the effect of ultrasonication on different properties of nanofluids are confined. In this paper, review of investigations carried out on experimentally evaluated ultrasonication effects on thermal properties and various physical properties of nanofluid. It is found that with an increased sonication time/energy, reduces the particle size and thus aids in obtaining a better dispersion leading to enhancement of stability, thermal conductivity and reducing viscosity. However, the longer ultrasonication duration was not found to be better in all cases where best performance was obtained for an optimum duration of ultrasonication.

Keywords

Ultrasonication Nanoparticle Nanofluid Stability Surfactant Agglomeration Viscosity Particle size 

Abbreviations

Al2O3

Alumina

CTAB

Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide

CNT

Carbon nanotube

DMF

Dimethylformamide

DW

Double walled

EG

Ethylene glycol

FW

Few walled

FE

Field emission

GNP

Graphene nanopowder

GA

Gum arabic

MW

Multi-walled

Mg(OH)2

Magnesium hydroxide

o-DCB

Ortho-dichlorobenzene

PU

Poly-urethane

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

SW

Single walled

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

TEM

Transmission electron microscope

TiO2

Titania

Vol%

Volume concentration percentage

W

Water

XRD

X-ray powder diffraction

ZnO

Zinc oxide

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringP. A. College of Engineering (Affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi)MangaluruIndia
  2. 2.Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy (CoRERE), Research InstituteKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM)DhahranSaudi Arabia

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