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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 135, Issue 1, pp 437–460 | Cite as

Combination of nanofluid and inserts for heat transfer enhancement

Gaps and challenges
  • S. Rashidi
  • M. Eskandarian
  • O. Mahian
  • S. PoncetEmail author
Article

Abstract

Improving heat transfer is a critical subject for energy conservation systems which directly affects economic efficiency of these systems. There are active and passive methods which can be employed to enhance the rate of heat transfer without reducing the general efficiency of the energy conservation systems. Among these methods, passive techniques are more cost-effective and reliable in comparison with active ones as they have no moving parts. To achieve further improvements in heat transfer performances, some researchers combined passive techniques. This article performs a review of the literature on the area of heat transfer improvement employing a combination of nanofluid and inserts. Inserts are baffles, twisted tape, vortex generators, and wire coil inserts. The progress made and the current challenges for each combined system are discussed, and some conclusions and suggestions are made for future research.

Keywords

Heat transfer enhancement Passive techniques Nanofluid Inserts 

List of symbols

d, D

Inner diameter of tube (m)

dp

Nanoparticle diameter (nm)

Dh

Hydraulic diameter (m)

e

Wire diameter (m)

el

Winglets–length ratio (-)

ep

Winglets–pitch ratio (-)

ew

Winglets–width ratio (-)

f

Friction factor (-)

h

Twist tape pitch (m)

H

Pitch of twisted tape (m)

Ip

Longitudinal pitch (m)

l

Twist length (m)

L

Duct length (m)

N

Number of tapes (-)

Nu

Nusselt number (-)

p

Pitch ratio (-)

p

Perimeter of tube (m)

p

Power (W)

Pr

Prandtl number (-)

Re

Reynolds number (-)

S

Tube surface (m2)

T

Tape thickness (m)

tp

Transverse pitch (m)

w

Tape width (m)

wh

Wing height (m)

ww

Wing width (m)

y

Twist length (m)

Y

Twist ratio (-)

yo

Overlapped pitch length of tape (m)

x

Axial distance (m)

Subscripts/superscripts

f

Base fluid

m

Bulk

nf

Nanofluid

p

Particle

TA

Twisted tape with alternate axis

TT

Typical twisted tape

Greek symbols

α

Wing attach angle (°)

αf

Area modification factor (°)

β

Wing attack angle (°)

μ

Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1 s−1)

φ

Solid volume fraction of nanoparticles (-)

Abbreviations

CNT

Carbon nanotube

DW

Delta wing

DWP

Delta winglet

HL

High to low

LH

Low to high

MWCNT

Multiwall carbon nanotubes

PEC

Performance evaluation criterion

RW

Rectangular wing

RWP

Rectangular winglet

U

Uniform

Notes

Acknowledgements

S. Poncet acknowledges the support of the NSERC chair on industrial energy efficiency funded by Hydro-Québec, Natural Resources Canada (CanmetENERGY) and Rio Tinto Alcan.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSemnan UniversitySemnanIran
  3. 3.Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE Lab.), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangmod, BangkokThailand
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversité de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

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