Investigating thermal and kinetic parameters of lithium titanate formation by solid-state method
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The lithium titanate formation through solid-state reaction between lithium carbonate and titanium dioxide was investigated with the help of thermogravimetry technique, under an inert atmosphere from ambient temperature to 1273 K at five (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 K min−1) heating rates. The kinetic mechanism involved in the reaction was proposed by employing Criado method and Zhang method. The results revealed that the three-dimensional diffusion mechanism is involved in the formation of lithium titanate. Also, the kinetic parameters were determined by using Fynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunsose (KAS) isoconversional kinetic methods. The value of activation energy and pre-exponential calculated from FWO is 214.52 kJ mol−1 and 4.96 × 10−10 min−1, whereas corresponding values calculated from KAS method are 211.27 kJ mol−1 and 6.23 × 10−9 min−1, respectively. Furthermore, thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy were determined at all heating rates, in order to evaluate spontaneity of the reaction.