Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 124, Issue 1, pp 205–214 | Cite as

Experimental investigation of pressure drop and heat transfer performance of amino acid-functionalized MWCNT in the circular tube

  • Ebrahim Hosseinipour
  • Saeed Zeinali Heris
  • Mehdi Shanbedi


In this research, an experimental study was conducted to clarify the forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of water-based nanofluid including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) flowing through a horizontal circular tube. In order to prepare a stable colloidal suspension in aqueous media, two methods of non-covalent and covalent functionalizations were used by gum Arabic (GA) and arginine (Arg), respectively. Both nanofluids of MWCNT-GA/water and MWCNT-Arg/water were prepared at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mass%, and they were investigated in a laminar regime (Re = 800–2000) at constant heat flux. A significant increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient with the addition of the Arg-functionalized MWCNT was the main achievement. Also, the convective heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing the nanofluid concentration and Reynolds number. Note that the thermal performance of MWCNT-Arg/water nanofluid is better than MWCNT-GA/water nanofluid. In addition, the low mass concentration of MWCNT had an insignificant effect on the pressure drop enhancement. Performance index results also showed that both prepared nanofluids are appropriate alternative for heat transfer equipment.


Nanofluid Carbon nanotubes Functionalization Heat transfer coefficient Arginine 

List of symbols


Surface area (m2)


Specific heat (J kg−1 K−1)


Tube diameter (m)




Heat transfer coefficient (W m−2 k−1)


Current (A)


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 k−1)


Tube length (m)

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow rate (kg s−1)


Nusselt number


Prandtl number

\( q^{{\prime \prime }} \)

Heat flux (W m−2)


Heat transfer rate (W)


Reynolds number


Temperature (°C)


Velocity (m s−1)


Voltmeter (V)


Axial distance (m)

Greek letters


Pressure drop


Performance index


Fluid viscosity (Pa s)


Density (kg m−3)


Volume fraction



Base fluid













Multi-walled carbon nanotubes


Functionalization of MWCNT with Arginine



The authors are grateful to Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council for financial support.

Supplementary material

10973_2015_5137_MOESM1_ESM.docx (136 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 136 kb)


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ebrahim Hosseinipour
    • 1
  • Saeed Zeinali Heris
    • 1
  • Mehdi Shanbedi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

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