Advertisement

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 115, Issue 2, pp 1427–1437 | Cite as

Heat affected zones in polymer laser marking

  • Ionel Danut SavuEmail author
  • Sorin Vasile Savu
  • Nicusor Alin Sirbu
Article

Abstract

Laser marking is based on the laser heating of the subjected material, the heating being below the melting temperature or thermal degradation starting point. Within and nearby the mark, the material is chemically, physically and mechanically affected. This means that the main characteristics are changing in such a way that the material is ageing. Thermal and mechanical analysis can be used to determine the modification of the material, which is important and necessary to know for predicting its use lifetime. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical modification of the polymer HDPE100, when laser marking is applied. Burst stress, elongation and relaxation modulus were determined for the base material, within the heat affected zone and within the laser burned mark. Information on the crystallization rate and on the elongation viscosity is also reported. According to the results, the polyethylene has very fast crystallization and that affects the marking process if lower than appropriate maintaining during heating process is applied. It becomes stabile after 0.23 min, when it is tested at 103 °C. The elongation viscosity was analysed and values of 105 Pa s were recorded for 10 s, which is a usual time of applying pressure. The performed analysis revealed about 10 % difference between the relaxation modulus of the irradiated and non-irradiated HDPE.

Keywords

Polymer heating Laser marking Crystallization Decreased plasticity Burst stress Elongation viscosity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the strategic grant POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, Project ID 61968 (2009), co-financed by the European Social Fund within the Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development 2007–2013. This work was partially supported by the strategic grant POSDRU/89/1.5/S/57649, Project ID 57649 (PERFORM-ERA), co-financed by the European Social Fund—Investing in People, within the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007–2013.

References

  1. 1.
    Csele M. Fundamentals of light sources and lasers. Hoboken: Wiley; 2004. ISBN 0-471-47660-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shinmoto M, Hayashibara S, Nishitoh M. Laser marking article and laser marking method, Patent 5897938, B32B 712.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andreeta MRB, et al. Bidimensional codes recorded on an oxide glass surface using a continuous wave CO2 laser. J Micromech Microeng. 2011;21(2):025004. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/21/2/025004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Von Allmen M, Blatter A. Laser-beam interactions with materials: physical principles and applications. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koechner W. Solid state laser engineering. New York: Springer; 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown EN, et al. Influence of molecular conformation on the constitutive response of polyethylene: a comparison of HDPE, UHMWPE, and PEX. Exp Mech. 2007;47:381–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balasoiu M, et al. Microstructure of magnetite doped elastomers investigated by SAXS and SANS. J Optoelectron Adv Mater. 2008;10(11):2932–5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wunderlich B, Jin Y, Bollar A. Mathematical description of differential scanning calorimetry based on periodic temperature modulation. Thermochim Acta. 1994;238:277–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee CS, Yeh GSY, Caddell RM. Cold extrusion and cold drawing of polymeric rod: the influence on subsequent tensile and compressive mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng. 1972;10:241–248. Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Henderson JB, Emmerich WD. Polymer characterization using thermo mechanical analysis. J Therm Anal. 1991;37:1825–31. doi: 10.1007/BF01912213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tuttle ME, Semeliss M, Wong R. The elastic and yield behavior of polyethylene tubes subjected to biaxial loadings. ExpMech. 1992;32:1.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mano JF, et al. Viscoelastic behaviour and time-temperature correspondence of HDPE with varying levels of process-induced orientation. Polymer. 2001;42:6187–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Manero O, Rangel-Nafaile C, García-Rejón A. Analysis of the flow behaviour of HDPE/LDPE blends using a kinetic network model. J Appl Polym Sci. 1987;33(6):2053–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu TY, Soong DS, Williams MC. Time-dependent rheological properties and transient structural states of entangled polymeric liquids: a kinetic network model. Polym Eng Sci. 1981;21:675–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reading M. Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Elsevier B. V. 1998;1:423–443.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Menczel J, et al. Thermal analysis of polymers, fundamentals and applications. Chichester: Wiley; 2009. ISBN 978-0-471-76917-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Price DM, et al. Localised thermal analysis of a packaging film. Thermochim Acta. 1999;332:143–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sugioka K, Meunier M, Piqué A, editors. Laser precision microfabrication, vol. 135. 1st ed., Springer series in materials science 2010. ISBN 978-3-642-10523-4.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang CM, et al. Thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of polylactide toughened by expoxidized natural rubber. Mater Des. 2013;45:198–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sperova M, et al. A hint on the correlation between cellulose fibers polymerization degree and their thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;110:71–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lazzara G, et al. Temperature-responsive inclusion complex of cationic PNIPAAM diblock copolymer and gamma-cyclodextrin. Soft Matter. 2012;8:5043–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cavallaro G, et al. Determining the selective impregnation of waterlogged archaeological woods with poly(ethylene) glycols mixtures by DSC. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;111:1449–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ilcin M, Hola O, Bakajova B, Kucerik J. FT-IR study of gamma-radiation induced degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA/humic acids blends. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2010;283:9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prusova A, et al. An alternative DSC approach to study hydration of hyaluronan. Carbohydr Polym. 2010;82:498–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kucerik J, et al. DSC study on hyaluronan drying and hydration. Thermochim Acta. 2010;523:245–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    De Lisi R, et al. Aqueous laponite clay dispersions in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(propylene oxide) oligomers and their triblock copolymers. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:9328–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prado JR, Vyazovkin S. Activation energies of water vaporization from the bulk and from laponite, montmorillonite, and chitosan powders. Thermochim Acta. 2010;524:197–201.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mianowski A, Siudyga T. Analysis of relative rate of reaction/process. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;109:751–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sunol JJ, Saurina J. Thermal Analysis of aged based composites. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2002;70:57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Avella M, et al. Effect of compatibilization on thermal degradation kinetics. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;102:975–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tsocheva D, Terlemezyan L. Calorimetric investigations of high density polyethylene/polyaniline composites. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2005;81:3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shahi P, et al. Experimental investigation on reprocessing of extruded wood flour/HDPE composites. Polym Compos. 2012;33:753–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morikawa J, et al. Influence of ordering change on the optical and thermal properties of inflation polyethylene films. Appl Surf Sci. 2011;257:5439–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vyazovkin S, Sbirrazzuoli N. Estimating the activation energy for non-isothermal crystallization of polymer melts. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2003;72:681–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Di Lorenzo ML, et al. Isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization of HDPE composites containing multilayer carton scraps as filler. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;125:3880–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Varga J, Menyhard A. Crystallization, melting and structure of polypropylene/poly(vinylidene-fluoride) blends. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2003;73:735–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Varga J, Stoll K, Menyhard A, Horvath Z. Crystallization of isotactic polypropylene in the presence of a beta-nucleating agent based on a trisamide of trimesic acid. J Appl Polym Sci. 2011;121:1469–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mathot VBF. Crystallization of polymers. A personal view on a lifetime in research. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;102:403–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ionel Danut Savu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sorin Vasile Savu
    • 1
  • Nicusor Alin Sirbu
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of MechanicsUniversity of CraiovaDrobetaTurnu SeverinRomania
  2. 2.National R&D Institute for Welding and Material Testing of TimisoaraTimisoaraRomania
  3. 3.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering“Politehnica” University of TimişoaraTimisoaraRomania

Personalised recommendations