Preparation, characterization, and catalytic activity of rare earth metal oxide nanoparticles
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In present study, a series of rare earth metal oxide (CeO2, Pr2O3, and Nd2O3) nanoparticles have been prepared by sol–gel route using Ce(NO3)3·6H2O, Pr(NO3)3·6H2O and Nd(NO3)3·6H2O, and citric acid as precursor materials. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the size and morphology of the nano oxide particles. The particles are spherical in shape and the average particle size is of the order of 11–30 nm. Their catalytic activity was measured on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and composite solid propellants (CSPs) by thermogravimetry (TG), TG coupled with differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), and ignition delay measurements. The ignition delays and activation energies are found to decrease when rare earth metal oxide nanoparticles were incorporated in the system. Addition of metal oxide nanoparticles to AP led to shifting of the high temperature decomposition peak toward lower temperature and the burning rate of CSPs was also found to enhance. However, E a activation energy for decomposition was also found to decrease with each catalyst.
KeywordsRare earth metal oxide nanoparticles (REMONs) Sol–gel route Catalytic activity Ammonium perchlorate Kinetics
The authors are grateful to Head, Chemistry Department of DDU Gorakhpur University for laboratory facility. IIT Roorkee for TG–DTA, STIC Cochin for XRD and Punjab University for TEM images. Thanks are also due to financial assistance by University Grants Commission for providing Emeritus Fellow to G. Singh and Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for INSPIRE fellowship to Supriya Singh.
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