Note on the use of the vacuum stability test in the study of initiation reactivity of attractive cyclic nitramines in Formex P1 matrix
- 160 Downloads
The zero-order reaction rates (specific rate constants) of isothermal decomposition at 120 °C of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) were measured by means of the Czech vacuum stability test, STABIL. The PBXs are based on 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX), cis-1,3,4,6-tetranitro-octahydroimidazo-[4,5-d]imidazole (BCHMX), and ε 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (ε-HNIW, ε-CL-20) with 13 wt% of the Formex P1 type matrix, i.e., a matrix of the explosive with pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) bound by 13 wt% of a mixture of 25 wt% of styrene–butadiene rubber and 75 wt% of an oily material. Dependencies were found between the specific rate constants mentioned and the detonation velocities of PBXs, and consequently between these constants and the impact and electric spark sensitivities of pure explosive fillers, i.e., RDX, HMX, HNIW, BCHMX, and PETN. It is stated that the higher impact or electric spark sensitivity of their pure explosive fillers corresponds to the higher thermal reactivity of the given PBXs.
KeywordsPlastic explosives Sensitivity Nitramines Vacuum stability test
The authors express their gratitude to Mrs. Monika Šubrtová from the Institute of Energetic Materials, University of Pardubice, for her precise measurements in the STABIL apparatus and basic evaluation of the corresponding recordings. This material is based upon work supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports of the Czech Republic as a part of its research Project No. MSM 0021627501.
- 3.STANAG 4556. Explosives: vacuum stability test. North Atlantic Treaty Organization; 1999.Google Scholar
- 6.Elbeih A, Zeman S, Jungová M, Akštein Z, Vávra P. Detonation characteristics and penetration performance of plastic explosives. In: Li S, Niu P, editors. Theory and practice of energetic materials, vol. IX. Beijing: Science Press; 2011. p. 508–13.Google Scholar
- 7.Krupka M. Devices and equipment for testing of energetic materials. In: Vagenknecht J, editor. Proc 4th Seminar “new trends in research of energetic materials”. Pardubice: University of Pardubice; 2001. p. 222.Google Scholar
- 9.Ou Y, Wang C, Pan Z, Chen B. Sensitivity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane. Chin J Energy Mater (HenNeng CaiLiao). 1999;7:100–2.Google Scholar
- 10.Zeman S, Pelikán V, Majzlík J, Friedl Z. Electric spark sensitivity of nitramines. part I. aspects of molecular structure. Cent Eur J Energy Mater. 2006;3(3):27–44.Google Scholar
- 12.Manelis GB, Nazin GM, Rubtsov YuI, Strunin VA. Thermal decomposition and combustion of explosives and powders. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press; 2003.Google Scholar
- 14.Zeman S, Elbeih A, Akštein Z. Preliminary study of several plastic bonded explosives based on cyclic nitramines. Chin J Energy Mater (HanNeng CaiLiao). 2011;16(1):8–12.Google Scholar
- 15.Korobko AP, Drozd SN, Milekhin YuM, Shishov NI, Lyubimenko TN, Beztuzheva TA, Krasheninikov SV, Levakova IV, Afanasyev ES. Rastvorimost nitraminov v plastifikatorakh energeticheskokh kondesirovannykh system (Solubility of nitramines in plasticizers of the energetic condensed systems). In: Sinditskii VP, Serushkin VV, Shepelov YuG, editors. Uspekhi v spetsialnoy khimii i khimikheskoy tekhnologii (Successes in special chemistry and chemical technology). Moscow: Ross Khem.-Tekhnol. Univ. Mendeleeva; 2010. p. 250–4.Google Scholar
- 16.Manelis GB, Nazin GM, Prokudin VG. Zavisimost termikheskoy stabilnosti energeticheskikh soedinenii ot physico-khimikheskikh svoystv krystallov (dependence of thermal stability of energetic compounds on physicochemical properties of crystals). In: Sinditskii VP, Serushkin VV, Shepelov YuG, editors. Uspekhi v spetsialnoy khimii i khimikheskoy tekhnologii (Successes in special chemistry and chemical technology). Moscow: Ross. Khem.-Tekhnol. Univ. Mendeleeva; 2010. p. 191–5.Google Scholar
- 17.Zeman S, Friedl Z. Relationship between electronic charges at nitrogen atoms of nitro groups and onsets of thermal decomposition of polynitro arenes. Cent Eur J Energy Mater. 2004;1(1):3–21.Google Scholar
- 19.Zeman S. Study of the initiation reactivity of energetic materials. In: Armstrong RW, Short JM, Kavetsky RA, Anand DK, editors. Energetics science and technology in Central Europe. CECD Series. College Park: University of Maryland; 2012. p. 132–67.Google Scholar