Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 111, Issue 1, pp 815–821 | Cite as

Calorimetric and conductometric titrations of nanostructures of water molecules in iteratively filtered water

Article

Abstract

This work continue the study of the physico-chemical properties of samples of pure, twice distilled water, when subject to a procedure of iterative filtrations through Pyrex glass filters (Büchner funnels). After the filtrations, electrical conductivity and heat of mixing with NaOH and HCl solutions increase. The hypothesis is that the iterative filtration procedure, that involves a flux of energy and material in an open system, is able to induce the formation of “dissipative structures” or nanostructures of water molecules (WNS). Water exhibits an extraordinary auto-organization potentiality triggered by several kinds of perturbations, including mechanical ones. We measured the heats of mixing of acid or basic solutions with such iterated filtered waters (IFW) and their electrical conductivity, comparing with the analogous heats of mixing, electrical conductivity of the solvent. We found some relevant exothermic excess heats of mixing and higher conductivity than those of the untreated solvent. The heats of mixing and electrical conductivity of IFW show a good correlation, underlining a single cause for the behavior of the samples.

Keywords

Pure water IFW Calorimetry Conductometry Dissipative structures Aqueous nanostructures Filtration 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was financed by a grant from Laboratories Boiron. The authors wish to thank Dr. Silvia Nencioni and Dr. Luigi Marrari for their advice and cooperation.

References

  1. 1.
    Mishima O, Stanley HE. Decompression-induced melting of ice IV and the liquid–liquid transition in water. Nature. 1998;392:164–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Malescio G, Franzese G, Skibinsky A, Buldyrev V, Sergey V, Stanley HE. Liquid-liquid phase transition for an attractive isotropic potential with wide repulsive range. Phys Rev E. 2005;71:061504/1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bakker HJ, Kropman MF, Omta AW. Effect of ions on the structure and dynamics of liquid water. J Phys. 2005;17:3215–24.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robinson GW, Cho CH, Gellene GI. Refractive index mysteries of water. J Phys Chem B. 2000;104:7179–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Woutersen S, Bakker HJ. Resonant intermolecular transfer of vibrational energy in liquid water. Nature. 1999;402:507–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kropman MF, Bakker HJ. Dynamics of water molecules in aqueous solvation shells. Science. 2001;291:2118–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wourtersen S, Emmerichs U, Bakker HJ. Femtosecond Mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy of liquid water: evidence for a two-component structure. Science. 1997;278:658–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gregory JK, Clary DC, Liu K, Brown MG, Saykally RJ. The water dipole moment in water clusters. Science. 1997;275:814–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ropp J, Lawrence C, Farrar TC, Skinner JL. Rotational motion in liquid water is anisotropic: a nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation study. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:8047–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Errington JR, Debenedetti PG. Relationship between structural order and the anomalies of liquid water. Nature. 2001;409:318–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lobyshev VI, Shikhlinskaya RE, Ryzhikov BD. Experimental evidence for intrinsic luminescence of water. J Mol Liq. 1999;82:73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lobyshev VI, Solovey AB, Bulienkov NA. Computer construction of modular structures of water. J Mol Liq. 2003;106:277–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Samal S, Geckeler KE. Unexpected solute aggregation in water on dilution. Chem Commun. 2001: 2224–2225.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ball P. Water: water-an enduring mystery. Nature. 2008;452:291–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marchettini N, Del Giudice E, Voeikov V, Tiezzi E. Water: a medium where dissipative structures are produced by coherent dynamics. J Theor Biol. 2010;265:511–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rey L. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride. Phys A. 2003;323:67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elia V, Niccoli M. Thermodynamics of extremely dilute aqueous solutions. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999;879:241–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elia V, Niccoli M. New physico-chemical properties of water induced by mechanical treatments. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2000;61:527–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Elia V, Niccoli M. New physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted solutions. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2004;75:815–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elia V, Elia L, Napoli E, Niccoli M. Conductometric and calorimetric studies of serially diluted and agitated solutions: the dependence of intensive parameters on volume. Int J Ecodyn. 2006;1:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Montagnier L, Aissa J, Ferris S, Montagnier J, Lavallée C. Electromagnetic signals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA sequences. Interdiscip Sci Comput Life Sci. 2009;1:81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lo SY. Anomalous state of ice. Mod Phys Lett B. 1996;10:909–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lo SY, et al. Physical properties of water with IE structure. Mod Phys Lett B. 1996;10:921–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lo SY, Xu G, Gann D. Evidence for the existence of stable-water-clusters at room temperature and normal pressure. Phys Lett A. 2009;373:3872–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Elia V, Napoli E. Dissipative structures in extremely diluted solutions of homeopathic medicines. A molecular model based on physico-chemical and gravimetric evidences. Int J Des Nat. 2010;5:39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prigogine I. Time, structure and fluctuations. Nobel Lecture. 8 Dec 1977.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Elia V, Napoli E. Nanostructures of water molecules in iteratively filtered water. KEM. 2012;495:37–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cattaneo TMP, Vero S, Napoli E, Elia V. Influence of filtration process on aqueous nanostructures by NIR spectroscopy. JCHE. 2011;5(11) (in press).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cacace CM, Elia L, Elia V, Napoli E, Niccoli M. Conductometric and pHmetric titrations of extremely diluted solutions using HCl solutions as titrant. A molecular model. J Mol Liq. 2009;146:122–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Elia V, Napoli E, Niccoli M. A molecular model of interaction between extremely diluted solutions and NaOH solutions used as titrant: conductometric and pHmetric titrations. J Mol Liq. 2009;148:45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Elia V, Napoli E, Niccoli M. Thermodynamic parameters for the binding process of the OH- ion with the dissipative structures. Calorimetric and conductometric titrations. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;102:1111–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Grotthuss CJT. Ann Chim. 1806;58:54–74.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gileadi E, Kirowa-Eisner E. Electrolytic conductivity—the hopping mechanism of the proton and beyond. Electrochim Acta. 2006;51:6003–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nicolis G. Physics of far–equilibrium systems and self-organization. In: Davies P, editor. The new physics. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1989.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Magnani A, Marchettini N, Ristori S, Rossi C, Rossi F, Rustici M, Spalla O, Tiezzi E. Chemical waves and pattern formation in the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/water lamellar system. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:11406–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, University “Federico II” of NaplesComplesso Universitario di Monte S’AngeloNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations