Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 693–699 | Cite as

Synthesis and thermal studies of bisphenol-A based bismaleimide

Effect of nanoclays
  • Chinnaswamy Thangavel Vijayakumar
  • Rajendran Surender
  • Kumaraswamy Rajakumar
  • Sarfaraz Alam


The compound 2,2-bis[4-(4-maleimidophenoxy phenyl)]propane was prepared by the imidization of bisamic acid of 2,2-bis(4-aminophenoxy phenyl)propane. Various nanoclays were blended with this bismaleimide and thermally cured. The structural characterization of the synthesized materials and the thermal properties of the bismaleimide and their blends were investigated through FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. Among the various clays investigated, Cloisite 15A shows strong influence on the cure exotherm of bismaleimide. Introduction of clay mineral into bismaleimide shifts the onset of curing exotherm to higher temperature and is nearly 40 °C. The thermal stability of the clay loaded cured bismaleimide increases and the presence of clay particles in the cured bismaleimide matrix enhances the char formation.


Bismaleimide Nanoclay FTIR NMR DSC TGA 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Directorate of Extramural Research & Intellectual Property Rights (ER & IPR), Defence Research & Development Organization, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, New Delhi-110105 for financially supporting this work under the Grant ERIP/ER/0704359/M/01/1101 dated 12-12-2008. The authors wish to express sincere thanks to Dr. W. Selvamurthy for his keen interest in this research work. Sincere thanks to the Management and the Principal of Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, S.P.G.C. Nagar, K. Vellakulam Post-625701, India for providing all the facilities to do this work. Thanks to R. Nagarajan, K. Ponprabhakaran, and N. Thangakameshwaran for their participation in this work.


  1. 1.
    Zhao L, Li L, Tian JX, Zhuang J, Li S. Synthesis and characterization of bismaleimide-polyetherimide titania hybrid. Composites Part A. 2004;35:1217–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nah C, Han SH, Lee J, Lee M, Lim SD, Rhee JM. Intercalation behavior of polyimide/organoclay nanocomposites during thermal imidization. Composites Part B. 2004;35:125–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ghose S, Watson KA, Cano RJ, Britton SM, Jensen BJ, Connell JW, Herring HM, Lineberry QJ. High temperature VARTM of phenylethynyl terminated imides. High Perform Polym. 2009;21:653–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu X, Yu YF, Li S. Study on cure reaction of the blends of bismaleimide and dicyanate ester. Polymer. 2006;47:3767–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu CS, Liu YL, Chiu Y. Synthesis and characterization of new organosoluble polyaspartimides containing phosphorus. Polymer. 2002;43:1773–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang H, Song N, Gao Z, Chen X, Fan X, Xiang Q, Zhou Q. Synthesis and properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole containing high-performance bismaleimide resins. Polymer. 2007;48:129–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Costache C, Heidecken MJ, Manias E, Wilkie CA. Preparation and characterization of poly(ethylene-terephthalate)/clay nano composites by melt blending using thermally stable surfactants. Polym Adv Technol. 2006;17:764–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meng J, Hu X. Synthesis and exfoliation of bismaleimide-organoclay nanocomposite. Polymer. 2007;45:9011–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen TK, Tien YI, Wei KH. Synthesis and characterization of novel segmented polyurethane/clay nano composites. Polymer. 2000;41:1345–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gupta RK, Bhattacharya SN. Polymer-clay nanocomposites: current status and challenges. Indian Chem Eng. 2008;50:242–67.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pelia R, Seferis JC, Karaki T, Parker G. Effects of nanoclay on the thermal and rheological properties of a VARTM (vacuum assisted resin transfer molding) epoxy resin. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009;96:587–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leszczynska A, Pielichowski K. Application of thermal analysis methods for characterization of polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;93:677–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee LJ, Zeng C, Cao X, Han X, Shen J, Yu G. Polymer nanocomposite foams. Compos Sci Technol. 2005;65:2344–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pelia R, Lengvinate S, Malucelli G, Priola A, Ronchetti S. Modified organophilic montmorillonites/LDPE nanocomposites preparation and thermal characterization. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2008;91:107–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gintert MJ, Jana SC, Miller SG. A novel strategy for nanoclay exfoliation in thermoset PMR-type polyimide-clay nanocomposites. Polymer. 2007;48:4166–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Priya L, Jog JP. Polymorphism in intercalated poly(vinylidene fluoride)/clay nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci. 2003;89:2036–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chinnaswamy Thangavel Vijayakumar
    • 1
  • Rajendran Surender
    • 1
  • Kumaraswamy Rajakumar
    • 1
  • Sarfaraz Alam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Polymer TechnologyKamaraj College of Engineering and TechnologyVirudhunagarIndia
  2. 2.Defence Materials and Stores Research and Development Establishment (DMSRDE)KanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations