On the stability of extremely diluted aqueous solutions at high ionic strength

A calorimetric study at 298 K
  • V. EliaEmail author
  • E. Napoli
  • M. Niccoli
Regular Papers Thermodynamics


An extensive study has been carried out on extremely diluted aqueous solutions (EDS). These solutions revealed a really intriguing physico-chemical behaviour, characterized by multiple independent variables. Because of their behaviour, EDS can be described as far-from-equilibrium systems, capable of self-organization as a consequence of little perturbations.

In this paper we investigate the stability of the calorimetric behaviour of EDS with a high ionic force, due to the presence of the sodium chloride electrolyte. We measured the excess heats of mixing of EDS with basic solutions, both with and without a high concentration of NaCl, and compared the results. In particular, we explored these concentrations: 0.5 and 1Mmol kg−1). The analysis of the experimental results shows that the calorimetric response of the EDS is stable when they are in a concentrated solution of NaCl. That is of great relevance for the eventual pharmacological action of these solutions, since it involves the interaction with fluids of complex chemical composition and high concentration.


age of the EDS calorimetry dissipative structures EDS extremely diluted solutions high ionic strength 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    V. Elia and M. Niccoli, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 879 (1999) 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    V. Elia and M. Niccoli, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 61 (2000) 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Elia and M. Niccoli, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 75 (2004) 815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    V. Elia, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, L. Nonatelli, A. Ramaglia and E. Ventimiglia, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 78 (2004) 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. Elia, M. Marchese, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, L. Nonatelli and A. Ramaglia, J. Solution Chem., 34 (2005) 947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, P. Cacace, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli and F. Savarese, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 84 (2006) 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, E. Napoli and M. Niccoli, Int. J. Ecodyn., 1 (2006) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, M. Marchese, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, L. Nonatelli and F. Savarese, J. Mol. Liq., 130 (2007) 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli and L. Nonatelli, J. Mol. Liq., 135 (2007) 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    V. Elia, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, N. Marchettini and E. Tiezzi, J. Solution Chem., (2007), accepted.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Belon, V. Elia, L. Elia, M. Montanino, E. Napoli and M. Niccoli, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., (2007), accepted.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. I. Lobyshev, R. E. Shikhlinskaya and B. D. Ryzhikov, J. Mol. Liq., 82 (1999) 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. I. Lobyshev, A. B. Solovey and N. A. Bulienkov, J. Mol. Liq., 106 (2003) 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    l. Rey, Physica A, 323 (2003) 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Samal and K. E. Geckeler, Chem. Commun., (2001) 2224.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    O. Mishima and H. E. Stanley, Nature, 392 (1998) 164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Malescio, G. Franzese, A. Skibinsky, V. Buldyrev, V. Sergey and H. E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E, 71 (2005) 061504/1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. J. Bakker, M. F. Kropman and A. W. Omta, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 17 (2005) 3215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. W. Robinson, C. H. Cho and G. I. Gellene, J. Phys. Chem. B, 104 (2000) 7179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Woutersen and H. J. Bakker, Nature, 402 (1999) 507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Y. Lo, Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 10 (1996) 909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Y. Lo, A. Lo, L. W. Chong, L. Tianzhang, L. H. Hua and X. Geng, Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 10 (1996) 921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Varian Spectra Manual.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. Nicolis, The New Physics, P. Davies, Ed., Cambrige University Press, New York 1989.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    I. Prigogine, Nobel Lecture, 8 December, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Magnani, N. Marchettini, S. Ristori, C. Rossi, F. Rossi, M. Rustici, O. Spalla and E. Tiezzi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126 (2004) 11406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Castronuovo, V. Elia and F. Velleca, Curr. Top. Solution Chem., 2 (1997) 125.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity ‘Federico II’ of Naples, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via CintiaNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations