Carbon nanoparticles as effective nucleating agents for polypropylene

  • S. Reyes-de Vaaben
  • A. Aguilar
  • F. Avalos
  • L. F. Ramos-de Valle


The effect of four nucleating agents on the crystallization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The nucleating agents are: carbon nanofibers (CNF), carbon nanotubes (CNT), lithium benzoate and dimethyl-benzylidene sorbitol.

Avramișs model is used to analyze the isothermal crystallization kinetics of iPP.

Based on the increase in crystallization temperature (T c) and the decrease in half-life time (τ½) for crystallization, the most efficient nucleating agents are the CNF and CNT, at concentrations as low as 0.001 mass%. Sorbitol and lithium benzoate show to be less efficient, while the sorbitol needs to be present at concentrations above 0.05 mass% to even act as nucleating agent.


carbon nanofibers carbon nanotubes dimethyl-benzylidene sorbitol isothermal kinetics lithium benzoate nucleating agents polypropylene 


  1. 1.
    W. J. Kissel and J. A. Meyer, Handbook of Polypropylene and Polypropylene Composites, Haruton G. Karian RheTech, Inc., p. 11.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Nagarajan, K. Levon and A. S. Myerson, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 59 (2000) 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Marco, G. Ellis, M. A. Gomez and J. M. Arribas, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 68 (2002) 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. P. Moore, Polypropylene Handbook, Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc. 1996, p. 190.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Varma-Nair and P. K. Agarwal, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 59 (2000) 483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. L. Smith, M. Divakaran, L. K. Bui, Y. P. Khanna, R. G. Bray, W. B. Hammond, S. Curran, J. J. Belles and S. Binder-Castelli, Macromolecules, 27 (1994) 3147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. N. Beck, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 11 (1967) 673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Feng, X. Jin and J. N. Hay, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 69 (1998) 2089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Nagasawa, A. Fujimori, T. Masuko and M. Iguchi, Polymer, 46 (2005) 5241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Zhang and Z. Xin, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 100 (2006) 4868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Valentini, J. Biagiotti, M. A. Lopez-Manchado, S. Santucci and J. M. Kenny, Polym. Eng. Sci., 44 (2004) 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Sandler, G. Broza, M. Nolte, K. Schulte, Y.-M. Lam and M. S. P. Shaffer, J. Macromol. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., B42 (2003) 479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Assouline, A. Lustiger, A. H. Barber, C. A. Cooper, E. Klein, E. Wachtel and H. D. Wagner, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 41 (2003) 520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Mubarak, P. J. Martin and E. Harkin-Jones, Plast., Rubber Compos., 29 (2000) 307.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Kristensen, T. Tervoort and P. Smith, Macromolecules, 38 (2005) 10461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Kristensen, M. Werner, T. Tervoort, P. Smith, M. Blomenhofer and H. Schmidt, Macromolecules, 36 (2003) 5150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Al-Ghazawi and R. P. Sheldon, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed., 21 (1983) 347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Varga, Polypropylene: Structure, Blends Compos., 1 (1995) 56.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Z. Weiping, Z. Guangping, Y. Jianyoung and D. Gance, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 91 (2004) 431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Ji-Dong, C. H. Man Ken, Y. Ming-Shu and Q. Zongneng, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 89 (2003) 3404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Valentini, J. Biagiotti and M. A. Lopez-Manchado, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 89 (2003) 2657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Arroyo, R. Zitzumbo and F. Avalos, Polymer, 41 (2000) 6351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Xin, Q. Gui and S. Wang, J. Macromol. Sci., Part B: Physics, 42 (2003) 663.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Wang, J. Sheng and S. Wu, Macromol. Sci., Part B: Physics, 43 (2004) 935.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Reyes-de Vaaben
    • 1
  • A. Aguilar
    • 1
  • F. Avalos
    • 1
  • L. F. Ramos-de Valle
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidad Autónoma de CoahuilaFacultad de Ciencias QuímicasSaltillo CoahuilaMexico
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada (CIQA)Saltillo CoahuilaMexico

Personalised recommendations