‘Extremely diluted solutions’ as multi-variable systems

A study of calorimetric and conductometric behaviour as a function of the parameter time
  • Elia V. Email author
  • Elia L. 
  • Cacace P. 
  • Napoli E. 
  • Niccoli M. 
  • Savarese F. 


A large number of thermodynamic and transport measurements were conducted on ‘extremely diluted solutions’ (EDS). The physico-chemical results presented here allow us to hypothesize that the process of iterated dilutions and succussions is capable of modifying in a permanent way the features of water. A really intriguing phenomenon was the evolution of two physico-chemical properties with time. The calorimetric and conductometric measures were carried out as a function of the age of the samples. We found a good linear correlation between these two independent parameters, also as a function of time. A careful study of the phenomenon puts in evidence that these solutions are characterised by multiple independent variables. The EDS behave as complex systems, influenced by peculiar aspects of the preparation technique and also by the storage conditions. The EDS are far-from-equilibrium systems, capable of auto-organising themselves as a consequence of little perturbations.


calorimetry conductivity extremely diluted aqueous solutions far-from-equilibrium system temporal evolution 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elia V. 
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elia L. 
    • 2
  • Cacace P. 
    • 1
  • Napoli E. 
    • 1
  • Niccoli M. 
    • 1
  • Savarese F. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, University ‘Federico II’ of NaplesComplesso Universitario di Monte S. AngeloNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity ‘Federico II’ of NaplesNaplesItaly

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