Influence of metal (M = Cd, In, and Sn) dopants on the properties of spin-coated WO3 thin films and fabrication of temperature-dependent heterojunction diodes

  • M. Raja
  • J. ChandrasekaranEmail author
  • M. Balaji
  • P Kathirvel
  • R. Marnadu
Original Paper: Characterization methods of sol–gel and hybrid materials


Metal-doped tungsten trioxide (M = Cd, In, and Sn:WO3) thin films were prepared using sol–gel spin-coating and their structural, optical, electrical properties were studied for the fabrication of p–n heterojunction diode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that Cd, In, and Sn dopants have a strong influence on the lattice parameters and defect factor without making any changes in the structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images reflect that the dopants have a strong impact on the surface morphologies of the WO3 thin film. The UV–visible analysis shows a high optical transmittance (∼82%) and variation in the bandgap was also obtained. The dc electrical conductivity (σdc) indicates that the band conduction mechanism is predominant in the pure and doped M:WO3 thin films. Current density–voltage (JV) characteristics of WO3/p-Si, Cd:WO3/p-Si, In:WO3/p-Si, and Sn:WO3/p-Si diodes were measured under dark and illumination conditions. In which, the Sn:WO3/p-Si diode exhibits better performance with good ideality factor (n = 2.6) and barrier height (ФB = 0.90) values for under illumination. Most importantly, the JVT characteristics of all the fabricated diodes were analyzed with different temperatures (303–423 K).


  • High quality WO3 thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique.

  • Effect of metal dopants (Cd, In and Sn) on structural and optical properties of WO3 thin films were investigated.

  • Microplate-like structure was grown on glass substrates.

  • High-sensitive heterojunction diodes were fabricated.


Sol–gel spin coating Ideality factor WO3 thin films Heterojunction diodes 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the DST, Government of India, for the major research project (EMR/2016/007874).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Raja
    • 1
  • J. Chandrasekaran
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. Balaji
    • 3
  • P Kathirvel
    • 4
  • R. Marnadu
    • 2
  1. 1.Vivekanandha College of Arts and Sciences for WomenTiruchengodeIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsSri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and ScienceCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsBannari Amman Institute of TechnologySathyamanglamIndia
  4. 4.GRD Centre for Materials Research, Department of PhysicsPSG College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia

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