Advertisement

Effect of withdrawal speed on the microstructure, optical, and self-cleaning properties of TiO2 thin films

  • Xilian SunEmail author
  • Penghui Chen
  • M. Mujahid
  • Lang Zhou
Original Paper: Functional coatings, thin films and membranes including deposition techniques
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

The transparent superhydrophilic TiO2 films were dip-coated on glass substrates by sol–gel method at different withdrawal speeds. The dependence of the morphological, transmittance, and self-cleaning properties of the films on withdrawal speed were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer, photocatalytic degradation of a methyl blue, and water contact angle. The results indicated that the withdrawal speed had a great impact on the surface morphology, the transmittance, and self-cleaning properties of the TiO2 films. With the withdrawal speed increasing, the grains size, porosity, and RMS values of the films gradually increase, and the absorption edge shifts toward longer wavelength. These increase the radiation absorption and photocatalytic activity. The hydrophilic property enhances with the withdrawal speed increasing, due to the surface roughness and capillary force from pores between grains. All the prepared films are transparent in the visible spectrum (400–800 nm) with an average transmittance of more than 70%. Films with high transmittance (T ~ 90% at 500 nm) and good self-cleaning properties (WCA < 5°) can be obtained at high withdrawal speed.

A multifunctional TiO2 thin film with nipple-like structure and porous morphology was prepared by dip-coating method through varying dip-coating speed. With the withdrawal speed increasing, the grains size, porosity and RMS values of the films gradually increase, and the absorption edge shifts toward longer wavelength. All these properties provide the nano-texture TiO2 thin film with good transparency, photocatalytic activity and superhydrophilicity.

Highlights

  • A multifunctional TiO2 film with nipple-like structure was prepared by dip-coating method.

  • Topographical analysis showed that the morphology related closely to the dip-coating speed.

  • The nanostructure provides the TiO2 film with high photocatalytic activity and superhydrophilicity.

  • Optical analysis showed that the transmission of TiO2 films depend on the morphology.

Keywords

TiO2 thin films Dip coating Microstructure Superhydrophilicity Self-cleaning 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Major projects of key research & development programs in Jiangxi province (No. 20161ACH80010).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10971_2019_5171_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (213 kb)
Supplementary Information

References

  1. 1.
    Zhang LW, Dillert R, Bahnemann D, Vormoor M (2012) Photo-induced hydrophilicity and self-cleaning: models and reality. Energy Environ Sci 5:7491–7507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banerjee S, Dionysiou DD, Pillai SC (2015) Self-cleaning applications of TiO2 by photo-induced hydrophilicity and photocatalysis. Appl Catal B: Envion 176–177:396–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrews RW, Pollard A, Pearce JM (2013) A new method to determine the effects of hydrodynamic surface coatings on the snow shedding effectiveness of solar photovoltaic modules. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 113:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fillion RM, Riahi AR, Edrisy A (2014) A reviews of icing prevention in photovoltaic devices by surface engineering. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 32:797–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salvaggio MG, Passalacqua R, Abate S, Perathoner S et al. (2016) Functional nano-textured titania-coatings with self-cleaning and antireflective properties for photovoltaic surfaces. Sol Energy 125:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nishide T, Sato M, Hara H (2000) Crystal structure and optical property of TiO2 gels and films prepared from Ti-edta complexes as titania precursors. J Mater Sci 35:465–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang WX, Deng W, Lei M, Huang H (2011) Superhydrophilic porous TiO2 film prepared by phase separation through two stabilizers. Appl Surf Sci 257:4774–4780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yu JG, Zhao XJ, Zhao QN (2000) Effect of surface structure on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel method. Thin Solid Films 379:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grosso D (2011) How to exploit the full potential of the dip-coating process to better control film formation. J Mater Chem 21(43):17033–17038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yimsiri P, Mackley MR (2006) Spin and dip coating of light-emitting polymer solutions: matching experiment with modeling. Chem Eng Sci 61:3496–3505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee MK, Park YC (2017) Super-hydrophilic anatase TiO2 thin film in-situ deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 638:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoshi Y, Yasuda Y, Kitahara N (2013) Control of nano-structure of photocatalytic TiO2 films by oxygen ion assisted glancing angle deposition. Jpn J Appl Phys 52:110124–1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamauchi S, Imai Y (2013) Plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of TiO2 thin films for highly hydrophilic performance. Cryst Struct Theory Appl 2:1–7Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miyauchi M, Tokudome H (2007) Super-hydrophilic and transparent thin films of TiO2 nanotube arrays by a hydrothermal reaction. J Mater Chem 17:2095–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sun XL, Chen PH, Zhou L, Mujahid M (2018) Effect of PEG-doping on microstructure and self-cleaning properties of titanium dioxide thin films. Acta Optic Sin 38:0116001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Znaidi L (2010) Sol-gel-deposited ZnO thin films: a review. Mater Sci Eng, B 174:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Le Berre M, Chen Y, Baigl D (2009) From convective assembly to Landau-Levich deposition of multilayered phospholipid films of controlled thickness. Langmuir 25:2554–2557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Groenveld P (1970) High capillary number withdrawal from viscous Newtonian liquids by flat plates. Chem Eng Sci 25:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clarizia L, Vitiello G, Pallotti DK, Silvestri B et al. (2017) Effect of surface properties of copper-modified commercial titanium dioxide photocatalysts on hydrogen production through photoreforming of alcohols. Int J Hydrog Energy 42(47):28349–28362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perathoner S, Passalacqua R, Centi G, Su DS, Weinberg G (2007) Photoactive titania nanostructured thin films: synthesis and characteristics of ordered helical nanocoil array. Catal Today 122:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yakuphanoglu F, Sekerci M, Balaban A (2005) The effect of film thickness on the optical absorption edge and optical constants of the Cr(III) organic thin films. Opt Mater 27:1369–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stavenga DG, Foletti S, Palasantzas G, Arikawa K (2006) Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies. Proc R Soc B 273:661–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen WF, Koshy P, Sorrell CC (2016) Effects of film topology and contamination as a function of thickness on the photo-induced hydrophilicity of transparent TiO2 thin films deposited on glass substrates by spin coating. J Mater Sci 51:2465–2480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Estrada M, Reza C, Salmones J (2014) Synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 thin films for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. J New Mater Electr Syst 17:23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tsumura T, Kojitani N, Izumi I et al. (2002) Carbon coating of anatase-type TiO2 and photoactivity. J Mater Chem 12:1391–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vitiello G, Pezzella A, Zanfardino A et al. (2017) Antimicrobial activity of eumelanin-based hybrids: the role of TiO2 in modulating the structure and biological performance. Mater Sci Eng C 75:454–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vitiello G, Pezzella A, Calcagno V et al. (2016) 5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid-TiO2 charge transfer complexes in the radical polymerization of melanogenic precursor(s). J Phys Chem C 120(11):6262–6268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wenzel RN (1936) Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water. Ind Eng Chem 28:988–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee HY, Park YH, Ko KH (2000) Correlation between surface morphology and hydrophilic/ hydrophobic conversion of MOCVD-TiO2 films. Langmuir 16:7289–7293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sakai N, Wang R, Fujishima A, Watanabe T, Hashimoto K (1998) Effect of ultrasonic treatment on highly hydrophilic TiO2 surfaces. Langmuir 14:5918–5920CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xilian Sun
    • 1
    Email author
  • Penghui Chen
    • 1
  • M. Mujahid
    • 2
  • Lang Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PhotovoltaicsNanchang UniversityNanchangChina
  2. 2.School of Chemical and Materials EngineeringNational University of Science and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations