Investigation of the structure and magnetic properties of Sn substituted Li-Zn ferrites fabricated by sol–gel process

  • Hao-ming Zhang
  • Zhi WangEmail author
  • Jia-jia Pei
  • Yu Gao
Original Paper: Nano-structured materials (particles, fibers, colloids, composites, etc.)


A series of Sn doped Li-Zn ferrite powders with composition of Li(0.2+0.5x)Zn0.6SnxFe(2.2−1.5x)O4 (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) are synthesized by sol–gel process. The ring-shaped bulk samples of all compositions are obtained by sintering at 950 °C for 3 h, and all the structural and magnetic measurements were carried out on the sintered bulk samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel structure when x ≤ 0.06 and the second phase of SnO2 at x = 0.08. Field emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) is used to observe the surface morphology of the bulk samples and particle sizes (DSEM). Micrograph of the sample for x = 0.08 shows many small particles appearing on the surface of the aggregation bulk samples. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) is employed to study the saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc). The Ms displays a downtrend with the increasing of doping concentration and all samples have a lower coercivity of less than 30 Oe. Initial permeability (μi) and Curie temperature (Tc) are measured in a furnace using HP4294A impedance analyzer. The μi increases with the Sn4+ concentration until x = 0.06 and the Tc decreases with the Sn4+ concentration. The cation distribution estimated from XRD pattern and magnetic properties analyses suggest that Li+ ions appear in the tetrahedral sites with increasing of Sn4+ and Li+ contents.


  • Li(0.2+0.5x)Zn0.6SnxFe(2.2−1.5x)O4 ferrites were first prepared by sol-gel method.

  • Abnormal tiny particles appear on the surface of bulk sample of x = 0.08.

  • The initial permeability increases remarkably with the doping of Li+ and Sn4+.

  • The cation distribution explains the change of saturation magnetization accurately.

  • The calculated αY-K angles confirm the decrease of A–B interaction.


Sol–gel auto-combustion method Li-Zn ferrites Sn4+ doping Cation distribution Magnetic properties 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (under Grant No. 51271130).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ScienceTianjin UniversityTianjinChina

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