Modification in the microstructural and electrochromic properties of spray-pyrolysed WO3 thin films upon Mo doping

  • Anil Kumar
  • Chandra Shekhar Prajapati
  • P. P. SahayEmail author
Original Paper: Functional coatings, thin films and membranes (including deposition techniques)


WO3 thin films were grown onto the glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that all the films possess orthorhombic phase of WO3. Morphologies of the films have been found to vary with Mo-doping concentrations. Three-dimensional atomic force micrographs reveal that the 5 at% Mo-doped film has the maximum image surface area and is optimal for improved electrochromic performance. Cyclic voltammetry studies show that the cathodic and anodic peak current densities have the highest values for the 5 at% Mo-doped WO3 film. Relative to the undoped film, the change from coloured to bleached state is faster for the 5 at% Mo-doped WO3 film. Considering the reversibility and the switching response from chronoamperometry and the coloration efficiency from cyclic voltammetry, it has been concluded that the 5 at% Mo-doped WO3 film has an optimal electrochromic response.

By analysing the results of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements, it has been found that the 5 at% Mo-doped WO3 film has optimal electrochromic performance.


  • As-deposited films possess orthorhombic phase of WO3.

  • 5 at% Mo-doped WO3 films have the maximum image surface area.

  • WO3 film doped with 5 at% Mo exhibits fastest switching response.

  • 5 at% Mo-doped film exhibits optimal electrochromic performance.


Mo-doped WO3 thin films Cyclic voltammetry Coloration efficiency Chronoamperometry Electrochromism 



We express our gratitude to Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, MNNIT Allahabad, India for providing XRD and UV–Vis measurements, and Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India for SEM and AFM characterisation facilities.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anil Kumar
    • 1
  • Chandra Shekhar Prajapati
    • 2
  • P. P. Sahay
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsMotilal Nehru National Institute of Technology AllahabadAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Nano Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Science BangaloreBengaluruIndia

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