Advertisement

Sol–gel synthesis of gelatin–zirconium(IV) tungstophosphate nanocomposite ion exchanger and application for the estimation of Cd(II) ions

  • Manita Thakur
  • Deepak PathaniaEmail author
Original Paper: Sol–gel and hybrid materials for catalytic, photoelectrochemical and sensor applications
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Gelatin–Zr(IV) tungstophosphate (GT/ZTP) nanocomposite ion exchanger was synthesised using simple sol–gel method at pH 0–1. GT/ZTP nanocomposite shows greater value of IEC (0.80 meq/g) as compared to Zr(IV) tungstophosphate (0.32 meq/g). TEM results confirmed the nano size of composite material. Distribution coefficient studies illustrates that the GT/ZTP have higher distribution coefficient values for Cd(II) instead of others. Binary separations of metal ion pairs including Cd(II)–Al(III), Cd(II)–Ni(II), Pb(II)–Mg(II), Mg(II)–Zn(II), Pb(II)–Cu(II), Co(II)–Cu(II), Al(III)–Co(II) and Ni(II)–Zn(II) were attempted using GT/ZTP naocomposite column. The photocatalytic studies showed that 84.61% MV was degraded within 4 h of solar illumination. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation for methyl violet (MV) was studied by pseudo-first-order kinetic model with higher R2 = 0.998. GT/ZTP nanocomposite was exploited for the erection of ion selective membrane electrode to detect Cd(II) in the water system. The electrode possessed wide concentration range, pH range and quick response time.

Sol–gel synthesis of GT/ZTP nanocomposite for the detection of cadmium ions and enhanced photocatalytic studies for the removal of dye from water system.

Highlights

  • A heterogeneous ion-selective membrane electrode was fabricated to detect Cd(II) using GT/ZTP nanocomposite.

  • GT/ZTP nanocomposite was highly selective for Cd2+ ions.

  • Some binary separations of different metal ions were accomplished onto GT/ZTP column.

  • GT/ZTP was used as photocatalyst for the degradation of MV under solar illumination.

Keywords

Nanocomposite Gelatin Heavy metals Methyl violet Electrode Zirconium tungstophosphate 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Visa M, Chelaru AM (2014) Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment. Appl Surf Sci 303:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saffaj N, Loukili H, Younssi SA, Albizane A, Bouhria M, Persin M, Larbo A (2004) Filtration of solution containing heavy metals and dyes by means of ultrafiltration membranes deposited on support made of Moroccan clay. Desalination 168:301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu X, Lee DJ (2014) Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption equilibrium of heavy metals and dyes from wastewaters. Bioresour Technol 160:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Namasivayam C, Sangeetha D (2006) Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon. J Hazard Mater 135:449–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kadirvelu K, Thamaraiselvi K, Namasivayam C (2001) Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from an agricultural solid waste. Bioresour Technol 76:63–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pathania D, Sharma G, Thakur R (2015) Pectin@ zirconium (IV) silicophosphate nanocomposite ion exchanger: photo catalysis, heavy metal separation and antibacterial activity. Chem Eng J 267:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Badruddoza AZ, Shawon ZB, Tay WJ, Hidajat K, Uddin MS (2013) Fe3O4/cyclodextrin polymer nanocomposites for selective heavy metals removal from industrial wastewater. Carbohydr Polym 91:322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim EJ, Lee CS, Chang YY, Chang YS (2013) Hierarchically structured manganese oxide-coated magnetic nanocomposites for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems. ACS Appl Mater Interface 5:9628–9634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharma G, Pathania D, Naushad M, Kothiyal NC (2014) Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activity of polyaniline Th (IV) tungstomolybdophosphate nanocomposite material: efficient removal of toxic metal ions from water. Chem Eng J 251:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sarkar S, Chatterjee PK, Cumbal LH, SenGupta AK (2011) Hybrid ion exchanger supported nanocomposites: Sorption and sensing for environmental applications. Chem Eng J 166:923–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bo X, Zhou M, Guo L (2017) Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on less aggregated graphene. Biosens Bioelectron 89:167–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharma G, Kumar A, Naushad M, Pathania D, Sillanpaa M (2016) Polyacrylamide@ Zr (IV) vanadophosphate nanocomposite: ion exchange properties, antibacterial activity and photocatalytic behavior. J Ind Eng Chem 33:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pathania D, Sharma G, Kumar A, Naushad M, Kalia S, Sharma A, AL-Othman ZA (2015) Combined sorptional–photocatalytic remediation of dyes by polyaniline Zr (IV) selenotungstophosphate nanocomposite. Toxicol Environ Chem 97:526–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pathania D, Thakur M, Mishra AK (2017) Alginate-Zr (IV) phosphate nanocomposite ion exchanger: Binary separation of heavy metals, photocatalysis and antimicrobial activity. J Alloy Compd 701:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thakur M, Sharma G, Ahamad T, Ghfar AA, Pathania D, Naushad M (2017) Efficient photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes from aqueous environment using gelatin-Zr (IV) phosphate nanocomposite and its antimicrobial activity. Colloids Surf B 157:456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pathania D, Thakur M, Sharma G, Mishra AK (2018) Tin (IV) phosphate/poly (gelatin-cl-alginate) nanocomposite: Photocatalysis and fabrication of potentiometric sensor for Pb (II). Mater Today Commun 14:282–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pathania D, Thakur M, Sharma A, Agarwal S, Gupta VK (2017) Synthesis of lactic acid–Zr (IV) phosphate nanocomposite ion exchanger for green remediation. Ionics 23:699–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pathania D, Thakur M, Puri V, Jasrotia S (2018) Fabrication of electrically conductive membrane electrode of gelatin-tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite for the detection of cobalt (II) ions. Adv Powder Technol 29:915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thakur M, Pathania D, Sharma G, Naushad M, Bhatnagar A, Khan MR (2018) Synthesis, characterization and environmental applications of a new bio-composite Gelatin-Zr (IV) phosphate. J Polym Environ 26:1415–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sharma G, Pathania D, Naushad M (2014) Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of biopolymer based nanocomposite ion exchanger pectin zirconium (IV) selenotungstophosphate: application for removal of toxic metals. J Ind Eng Chem 20:4482–4490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yu J, Zhang J, Liu S (2010) Ion-exchange synthesis and enhanced visible-light photoactivity of CuS/ZnS nanocomposite hollow spheres. J Phys Chem C 114:13642–13649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sharma G, Thakur B, Naushad M, Ala’a H, Kumar A, Sillanpaa M, Mola GT (2017) Fabrication and characterization of sodium dodecyl sulphate@ ironsilicophosphate nanocomposite: Ion exchange properties and selectivity for binary metal ions. Mater Chem Phys 193:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Khan A, Asiri AM, Rub MA, Azum N, Khan AA, Khan SB, Rahman MM, Khan I (2013) Synthesis, characterization of silver nanoparticle embedded polyaniline tungstophosphate-nanocomposite cation exchanger and its application for heavy metal selective membrane. Compos Part B Eng 45:1486–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naushad M, Ahamad T, Sharma G, Ala’a H, Albadarin AB, Alam MM, AL-Othman ZA, Alshehri SM, Ghfar AA (2016) Synthesis and characterization of a new starch/SnO2 nanocomposite for efficient adsorption of toxic Hg2+ metal ion. Chem Eng J 300:306–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khan AA, Akhtar T (2008) Preparation, physico-chemical characterization and electrical conductivity measurement studies of an organic–inorganic nanocomposite cation-exchanger: poly-o-toluidine Zr (IV) phosphate. Electrochim Acta 53:5540–5548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Khan AA, Paquiza L (2011) Analysis of mercury ions in effluents using potentiometric sensor based on nanocomposite cation exchanger polyaniline–zirconium titanium phosphate. Desalination 272:278–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bushra R, Naushad M, Adnan R, AL-Othman ZA, Rafatullah M (2015) Polyaniline supported nanocomposite cation exchanger: Synthesis, characterization and applications for the efficient removal of Pb2+ ion from aqueous medium. J Ind Eng Chem 21:1112–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khan AA, Baig U (2012) Electrically conductive membrane of polyaniline–titanium (IV) phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite: applicable for detection of Pb (II) using its ion-selective electrode. J Ind Eng Chem 18:1937–1944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khan AA, Baig U, Khalid M (2011) Ammonia vapor sensing properties of polyaniline–titanium (IV) phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite. J Hazard Mater 186:2037–2042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nabi SA, Shahadat M, Bushra R, Shalla AH, Azam A (2011) Synthesis and characterization of nano-composite ion-exchanger; its adsorption behavior. Colloids Surf B Bio 87:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fernandes FM, Ruiz AI, Darder M, Aranda P, Ruiz-Hitzky E (2009) Gelatin-clay bio-nanocomposites: structural and functional properties as advanced materials. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 9:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee WF, Lee SC (2006) Effect of hydrotalcite on the swelling and mechanical behaviors for the hybrid nanocomposite hydrogels based on gelatin and hydrotalcite. J Appl Polym Sci 100:500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reddy PR, Varaprasad K, Sadiku R, Ramam K, Reddy GV, Raju KM, Reddy NS (2013) Development of gelatin based inorganic nanocomposite hydrogels for inactivation of bacteria. J Inorg Organomet Polym Mater 23:1054–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang K, Nune KC, Misra RD (2016) The functional response of alginate-gelatin-nanocrystalline cellulose injectable hydrogels toward delivery of cells and bioactive molecules. Acta Biomater 36:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhou Z, Liu YG, Liu SB, Liu HY, Zeng GM, Tan XF, Yang CP, Ding Y, Yan ZL, Cai XX (2017) Sorption performance and mechanisms of arsenic (V) removal by magnetic gelatin-modified biochar. Chem Eng J 314:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Khan MN, Islam JM, Khan MA (2012) Fabrication and characterization of gelatin‐based biocompatible porous composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res B 100:3020–3028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sharma G, Pathania D, Naushad M (2015) Preparation, characterization, and ion exchange behavior of nanocomposite polyaniline zirconium (IV) selenotungstophosphate for the separation of toxic metal ions. Ionics 21:1045–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pathania D, Sharma G, Naushad M, Kumar A (2014) Synthesis and characterization of a new nanocomposite cation exchanger polyacrylamide Ce (IV) silicophosphate: photocatalytic and antimicrobial applications. J Ind Eng Chem 20:3596–3603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Khan AA, Baig U (2012) Electrically conductive membrane of polyaniline–titanium (IV) phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite: Applicable for detection of Pb (II) using its ion-selective electrode. J Ind Eng Chem 18:1937–1944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Khan AA, Habiba U, Khan A (2009) Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic nanocomposite poly-o-anisidine Sn (IV) arsenophosphate: its analytical applications as Pb (II) ion-selective membrane electrode. Int J Anal Chem 2009 1-10Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    AL-Othman ZA, Alam MM, Naushad M, Bushra R (2015) Electrical conductivity and thermal stability studies on polyaniline Sn (IV) tungstomolybdate nanocomposite cation-exchange material: application as Pb (II) ion-selective membrane electrode. Int J Electrochem Sci 10:2663–2684Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Khan A, Khan AA, Asiri AM, Al-Sehemi AG, Marwani HM (2015) Sol–gel synthesis of poly (o-toluidine)@ Sn (II) silicate/CNT composites for ion selective membrane electrodes. J Mol Liq 208:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tripathi BP, Kumar M, Shahi VK (2009) Highly stable proton conducting nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) prepared by pore modifications: an extremely low methanol permeable PEM. J Memb Sci 327:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Khan A, Asiri AM, Khan AA, Rub MA, Azum N, Rahman MM, Khan SB, Alamry KA, AbGhani S (2013) Sol–gel synthesis and characterization of conducting polythiophene/tin phosphate nano tetrapod composite cation-exchanger and its application as Hg (II) selective membrane electrode. ‎J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 65:160–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Semagne B, Diaz I, Kebede T, Taddesse AM (2016) Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of polyaniline tin (IV) molybdophosphate composite with nanocrystalline domains. React Funct Polym 98:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saad M, Tahir H, Khan J, Hameed U, Saud A (2017) Synthesis of polyaniline nanoparticles and their application for the removal of crystal violet dye by ultrasonicated adsorption process based on response surface methodology. Ultrason Sonochem 34:600–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sharma G, Thakur B, Naushad M, Ala’a H, Kumar A, Sillanpaa M, Mola GT (2017) Fabrication and characterization of sodium dodecyl sulphate@ ironsilicophosphate nanocomposite: ion exchange properties and selectivity for binary metal ions. Mater Chem Phys 193:129–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nabi SA, Shalla AH (2009) Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of hybrid; acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate a cation exchanger, effect of dielectric constant on distribution coefficient of metal ions. J Hazard Mater 163:657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kaushal S, Badru R, Kumar S, Mittal SK, Singh P (2016) Fabrication of a mercury (II) ion selective electrode based on poly-o-toluidine–zirconium phosphoborate. RSC Adv 6:3150–3158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kaushal S, Mittal SK, Singh AP, Singh P (2017) Zirconium (IV) phosphoborate-based ion selective membrane electrode for potentiometric determination of Ba (II) ions. Asian J Chem 29:375CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMaharishi Markandeshwar UniversitySolanIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesCentral University of Jammu, Bagla (Rahya-Suchani)Jammu & KashmirIndia

Personalised recommendations