Third-order nonlinearity and optical limiting properties of sol–gel-based bromophenol blue dye immobilized in silica–titania nanohybrid
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Silica–titania (ST) nanohybrid and bromophenol blue (BPB) immobilized ST nanohybrid matrix are synthesized by low-temperature sol–gel route. The influence of BPB on the structural, morphological, and nonlinear optical properties of silica–titania nanohybrid was investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and z-scan technique. FTIR analysis confirms the chemical bonding between hydrophobic BPB dye species and hydrophilic type ST nanohybrid matrix. TEM and AFM analysis shows that the synthesized immobilized nanohybrid has inter-dispersed structure with average particle size of 0.8 ± 0.3 nm, smooth morphology, and low average surface roughness ~4.57 nm. The immobilization of BPB greatly improves the nonlinear refraction response and the nonlinear refractive index increases from 4.8 × 10–9 cm2/W to 451.9 × 10–9 cm2/W. Reverse saturable absorption is observed in both BPB and BPB/ST nanohybrid. However, the magnitude of nonlinear absorption coefficient in BPB/ST is lower than the BPB dye due to the occurrence of saturable absorption of the ST matrix. The optical limiting (OL) behavior of the BPB/ST nanohybrid reveals the low OL threshold at 0.33 kW/cm2. The synthesized BPB/ST nanohybrid has potential as an optical limiters for safety of photonic and optoelectronic devices under low-powered CW laser.
Synthesis of silica–titania (ST) nanohybrid and bromophenol blue (BPB) immobilized ST nanohybrid matrix by sol–gel method is reported.
FTIR analysis confirms the chemical bonding between hydrophobic BPB dye species and hydrophilic type ST nanohybrid matrix.
TEM and AFM analysis shows the inter-dispersed structure with low average surface roughness ~4.57 nm.
The superior nonlinear refraction response and the nonlinear refractive index 4.52 × 10–7 cm2/W is obtained.
The optical limiting (OL) behavior revealed the low OL threshold at 0.33 kW/cm2.
The synthesized BPB-ST nanohybrid has potential as an optical limiters for safety of photonic and optoelectronic devices under low-powered CW laser.
KeywordsSilica–titania nanohybrid Bromophenol blue dye Structural analysis Saturable absorption Optoelectronics
Mundzir Abdullah acknowledges the financial support by the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, through RMC under the postdoctoral fellowship (vote 04E08) for the performance and the management of the project. Corresponding author is grateful to the Malaysia Ministry of Education through the FRGS fund with vote 03EE89.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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